IS LITHIUM NOW PREDOMINANT IN THE AEROSOL SPRAYED NANOPARTICLES?
VSF: There have been recent reports of serious damage to the ozone, not just in the Antarctic and New Zealand, but also around the planet. An aerospace engineer has been taking measurements for Dane Wigington at GeoengineeringWatch.org and the data is not good, in fact dire.
Geoengineering is Destroying the Ozone, A Former NASA Engineer Speaks Out
The MILKY HAZE in our Skies
Many who are aware and observant have noticed that the Solar Radiation Management SRM aerosol spraying has taken a new appearance in the skies above and most tend to describe this as a ‘milky haze’. Here on the Olympic Peninsula this ‘milky haze’ has become predominant, in fact we rarely see a blue sky anymore. While the Pacific Northwest is known for grey damp wet rainy overcast winters, this haze is not grey, but rather has the coloration of a dirty milk, perhaps like soy milk, a bit brownish, a polluted haze.
We can no longer know what is in these sprays, because they are now in nanoparticles and we could not afford have access to the very expensive machines that would analyze them, spectrometers, etc.
Spectrometers have developed into electronically operated complex machines, but they share the same principle as the initial spectrometers made by Fraunhofer. Modern spectrometers use a monochromatic light that passes through a liquid solution of the material and a photodetector detects the light. The changes of the light compared to the source light allow the instrument to output a graph of the absorbed frequencies. This graph indicates the characteristic transitions in the sample material. These types of advanced spectrometers are also called spectrophotometers because it is a spectrometer and photometer combined into a single device. The process is known as the spectrophotometry.
The advancement of the technology led to the adoption of spectroscopes into many science and technology fields. Extending beyond the frequencies of visible light, spectrometers capable of detecting IR and UV regions of the electromagnetic spectrums also were developed. Compounds with higher and lower energy transitions than the visible light can be detected by these spectrometers.
We have been financially excluded from data analysis of this new form of aerosol spraying which we are breathing, and which is inundating the soil that our food is grown in, indeed the entire planet.
Lithium blocks Ultraviolet Radiation
As I looked out my window here on the Olympic Peninsula and gazed into the milky haze that was spread out over the entire Peninsula, I wondered what wicked chemicals were contained in these nanoparticles, the plasma technology that is so ‘national security’ secret. It occurred to me that if I wanted to subdue a population, to render them docile, raining Lithium down on them would be a good choice. Everyone knows that Lithium is widely used to treat manic depressives and that it also has side effects — such as confusion, memory loss or lack of awareness, also irregular pulse, weakness or feeling tired, trouble breathing, stiffness in the arms and legs, and more.
Connecting the idea of ozone depletion and Lithium, I googled “Lithium blocks ultraviolet radiation” and came up with the following links. The US PATENT is particularly interesting, with multiple implications for those who can transfer these technologies to geoengineering the planet. I hope that the reader will contemplate these ideas. I am not a scientist, I know my limits, but have a look for yourself at what I found. Transpose these ideas to the recent milky haze spray. [I will soon include a reaction from an ‘Anonymous’ engineer who is scientifically trained and who agrees with my intuitive connections.]
Mounds of Lithium in salt in Bolivia, ready for evaporation and transport. Increasing demand for the element may make the country ‘‘the Saudi Arabia of lithium.’’ Credit Olaf Otto Becker
Lithium (from Greek: λίθος lithos, “stone”) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element.
Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. For this reason, it is typically stored in mineral oil. When cut open, it exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with moist air corrodes the surface quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. Because of its high reactivity, lithium never occurs freely in nature, and instead, appears only in compounds, which are usually ionic. Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but due to its solubility as an ion, is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines and clays. On a commercial scale, lithium is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.
The nucleus of the lithium atom verges on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though the nuclei are very light in atomic weight. For related reasons, lithium has important links to nuclear physics. The transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium-6 deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.
Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. These uses consume more than three quarters of lithium production.
Electrical and electronics
Late in the 20th century, lithium became an important component of battery electrolytes and electrodes, because of its high electrode potential. Because of its low atomic mass, it has a high charge- and power-to-weight ratio. A typical lithium-ion battery can generate approximately 3 volts per cell, compared with 2.1 volts for lead-acid or 1.5 volts for zinc-carbon cells. Lithium-ion batteries, which are rechargeable and have a high energy density, should not be confused with lithium batteries, which are disposable (primary) batteries with lithium or its compounds as the anode. Other rechargeable batteries that use lithium include the lithium-ion polymer battery, lithium iron phosphate battery, and the nanowire battery.
Lithium chloride and lithium bromide are hygroscopic and are used as desiccants for gas streams. Lithium hydroxide and lithium peroxide are the salts most used in confined areas, such as aboard spacecraft and submarines, for carbon dioxide removal and air purification. Lithium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide from the air by forming lithium carbonate, and is preferred over other alkaline hydroxides for its low weight.
Lithium fluoride, artificially grown as crystal, is clear and transparent and often used in specialist optics for IR, UV and VUV (vacuum UV) applications. It has one of the lowest refractive indexes and the farthest transmission range in the deep UV of most common materials. Finely divided lithium fluoride powder has been used for thermoluminescent radiation dosimetry (TLD): when a sample of such is exposed to radiation, it accumulates crystal defects which, when heated, resolve via a release of bluish light whose intensity is proportional to the absorbed dose, thus allowing this to be quantified. Lithium fluoride is sometimes used in focal lenses of telescopes.
The high non-linearity of lithium niobate also makes it useful in non-linear optics applications. It is used extensively in telecommunication products such as mobile phones and optical modulators, for such components as resonant crystals. Lithium applications are used in more than 60% of mobile phones.
US PATENT: Methods of charging solid state plasmonic electrochromic smart window devices
US 20160246153 A1 / 2016
Methods of charging an electrochromic device includes post assembly charging using a sacrificial redox agent, lithium diffusion into an electrode from a lithium layer or salt bridge charging, or pre assembly charging using proton photoinjection into an electrode.
An embodiment of the invention provides improved charging processes for electrochromic devices, such as devices containing nanostructured material electrodes capable of selectively modulating radiation in near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral regions. Specifically, various embodiments may to improve the manufacture of EC window coatings by enabling charging of the electrodes in a manner that is easier than the traditional lithium bath charging process, given the gel polymer state of the electrolyte used in various embodiments.
(0016) The various embodiments provide devices and methods for charging devices containing electrochromic nanostructured materials fabricated into an electrode to form an electrochromic device, such as a smart window coating for a building structure or vehicle. In various embodiments, the material may undergo a reversible change in optical properties when driven by an applied potential. Based on the applied potential, the electrochromic nanostructured materials may modulate NIR radiation [NIR = Near Infrared] (wavelength of around 780-2500 nm), as well as visible radiation (wavelength of around 400-780 nm). In an example, the device may include a first nanostructured material that modulates radiation in a portion of the NIR spectral region and in the visible spectral region, and a second nanostructured material that modulates radiation in an overlapping portion of the NIR spectral region such that the NIR radiation modulated by the device as a whole is enhanced and expanded relative to that of just the first nanostructured material. In various embodiments, the material may operate in multiple selective modes based on the applied potential.
Further, the various embodiments may include at least one protective material to prevent or reduce damage to an electrochromic nanostructured material that may result from repeated exposure to radiation in the UV spectral region. In an example, a protective material may be used to form at least one barrier layer in the device that is positioned to block UV radiation from reaching the first nanostructured material and electrolyte. In another example, a protective material may be used to form a layer that is positioned to block free electron charge carriers created in the electrolyte due to absorption of UV radiation by the electrolyte from migrating to the nanostructured materials, while allowing diffusion of ions from the electrolyte (i.e., an electron barrier and ion conductor).
In various embodiments, the second dopant species may be an intercalation ion species selected from the group of lanthanides (e.g., cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium), alkali metals (e.g., lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium), and alkali earth metals (e.g., beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium). In other embodiments, the second dopant species may include a charged proton species.
In various embodiments, the optional nanostructures 113 may be mixed with the doped transition metal oxide bronze nanostructures 112 in the working electrode 104. In the various embodiments, the nanostructures 113 may include at least one TCO composition, which prevents UV radiation from reaching the electrolyte and generating electrons. In an example embodiment, the nanostructures 113 may include an indium tin oxide (ITO) composition, which may be a solid solution of around 60-95 wt % (e.g., 85-90 wt %) indium(III) oxide (In2O3) and around 5-40 wt % (e.g., 10-15 wt %) tin(IV) oxide (SnO2). In another example embodiment, the nanostructures 113 may include an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) composition, which may be a solid solution of around 99 wt % zinc oxide (ZnO) and around 2 wt % aluminum(III) oxide (Al2O3). Additional or alternative TCO compositions that may be used to form nanostructures 113 in the various embodiments include, but are not limited to, indium oxide, zinc oxide and other doped zinc oxides such as gallium-doped zinc oxide and indium-doped zinc oxide.
The TCO composition of nanostructures 113 may be transparent to visible light and, upon application of the first voltage, may modulate absorption of NIR radiation at wavelengths of around 1200-2500 nm, with peak absorbance around 2000 nm (e.g., at a longer peak wavelength than the bronze nanoparticles 112, but with overlapping absorption bands). In particular, application of the first voltage may cause an increase in free electron charge carriers, and therefore cause a surface plasmon resonance effect in at least one TCO composition of nanostructures 113. In an embodiment in which the TCO composition is ITO, the surface plasmon resonance effect may be caused by oscillation of free electrons produced by the replacement of indium ions (In3+) with tin ions (Sn4+). Similar to the transition metal oxide bronze, such surface plasmon resonance may cause a change in absorption properties of the TCO material. In some embodiments, the change in absorption properties may be an increase in absorbance of NIR radiation at wavelengths that overlaps with that of the nanostructures 112. Therefore, the addition of TCO composition nanostructures 113 to the working electrode 104 may serve to expand the range of NIR radiation absorbed (e.g., at wavelengths of around 780-2500 nm) compared to that of the nanostructures 112 alone (e.g., at wavelengths of around 780-2000 nm), and to enhance absorption of some of that NIR radiation (e.g., at wavelengths of around 1200-2000 nm).
Based on these optical effects, the nanostructures 112, 113 of the working electrode may progressively modulate transmittance of NIR and visible radiation as a function of applied voltage by operating in at least three different modes. For example, a first mode may be a highly solar transparent (“bright”) mode in which the working electrode 104 is transparent to NIR radiation and visible light radiation. A second mode may be a selective-IR blocking (“cool”) mode in which the working electrode 104 is transparent to visible light radiation but absorbs NIR radiation. A third mode may be a visible blocking (“dark”) mode in which the working electrode 104 absorbs radiation in the visible spectral region and at least a portion of the NIR spectral region. In an example, application of a first voltage having a negative bias may cause the electrochromic device to operate in the cool mode, blocking transmittance of NIR radiation at wavelengths of around 780-2500 nm. In another example, application of a second negative bias voltage having a higher absolute value than the first voltage may cause the electrochromic device to operate in the dark state, blocking transmittance of visible radiation (e.g., at wavelengths of around 400-780 nm) and NIR radiation at wavelengths of around 780-1200 nm. In another example, application of a third voltage having a positive bias may cause the electrochromic device to operate in the bright state, allowing transmittance of radiation in both the visible and NIR spectral regions. In various embodiments, the applied voltage may be between −5V and +5V, preferably between −2V and +2V. For example, the first voltage may be −0.25V to −0.75V, and the second voltage may be −1V to −2V. In another example, the absorbance of radiation at a wavelength of 800-1500 nm by the electrochromic device may be at least 50% greater than its absorbance of radiation at a wavelength of 450-600 nm.
In some embodiments, the counter electrode 108 may be formed from at least one passive material that is optically transparent to both visible and NIR radiation during the applied biases. Examples of such passive counter electrode materials may include CeO2, CeVO2, TiO2, indium tin oxide, indium oxide, tin oxide, manganese or antimony doped tin oxide, aluminum doped zinc oxide, zinc oxide, gallium zinc oxide, indium gallium zinc oxide, molybdenum doped indium oxide, Fe2O3, and/or V2O5. In other embodiments the counter electrode 108 may be formed from at least one complementary material, which may be transparent to NIR radiation but which may be oxidized in response to application of a bias, thereby causing absorption of visible light radiation. Examples of such complementary counter electrode materials may include Cr2O3, MnO2, FeO2, CoO2, NiO2, RhO2, or IrO2. The counter electrode materials may include a mixture of one or more passive materials and/or one or more complementary materials described above.
Without being bound to any particular theory, it is believed that the application of a first voltage in the various embodiments may cause the interstitial dopant species (e.g., cesium) in the crystal structure of the transition metal oxide bronze to have a greater amount of free carrier electrons and/or to cause the interstitial dopant species (e.g., lithium ions from the electrolyte) to perform non-faradaic capacitive or pseudo-capacitive charge transfer on the surface of the nanostructures 112, which may cause the surface plasmon resonance effect to increase the absorption of NIR radiation. In this manner, the absorption properties of the transition metal oxide bronze characteristics may change (i.e., increased absorption of NIR radiation) upon application of the first voltage. Further, application of a second voltage having a higher absolute value than the first voltage in the various embodiments may cause faradaic intercalation of an intercalation dopant species (e.g., lithium ions) from the electrolyte into the transition metal oxide nanostructures. It is believed that the interaction of this dopant species provides interstitial dopant atoms in the lattice which creates a polaron effect. In this manner, the lattice structure of transition metal oxide nanoparticles may experience a polaron-type shift, thereby altering its absorption characteristics (i.e., shift to visible radiation) to block both visible and near infrared radiation.
In some embodiments, in response to radiation of certain spectral regions, such as UV (e.g., at wavelengths of around 10-400 nm) may cause excitons to be generated in the polymer material of the solid state electrolyte 106. The UV radiation may also excite electrons in the doped transition metal oxide bronze to move into the conduction band, leaving holes in the valence band. The generated excitons in the polymer material may dissociate to free carriers, the electrons of which may be attracted to the holes in the valence band in the doped transition metal oxide bronze (e.g., cesium-doped tungsten trioxide (CsxWO3)) of nanoparticles 112. Since electrochemical reduction of various transition metal oxide bronzes by such free electron charge carriers may degrade their performance (i.e., from unwanted coloration of the transition metal oxide bronze), embodiment devices may include one or more layer of a protective material to prevent UV radiation from reaching the solid state electrolyte 106, in addition to or instead of nanostructures 113 mixed into the working electrode.
The UV radiation absorbing material of the one or more protective layers 116 a-116 c of the various embodiments may be any of a number of barrier films. For example, the one or more protective layer 116 a-116 c may be a thin film of at least one TCO material, which may include a same as or different from TCO compositions in the nanostructures 113. In an example embodiment, a protective layer 116 a of the device 150 may be an ITO thin film, and therefore capable of absorbing UV radiation by band-to-band absorption (i.e., absorption of a UV photon providing enough energy to excite an electron from the valence band to the conduction band). In another example embodiment, the device may include the TCO nanostructures 113 made of ITO, as well as a protective layer 116 a composed of an ITO thin film. Alternatively, the TCO nanostructures 113 may form a separate thin film layer 116 c disposed between the transition metal oxide bronze nanoparticles 112 and the transparent conductor 102 a. In some embodiments, the UV radiation absorbing materials of protective layers 116 a-116 c may include organic or inorganic laminates.
In another embodiment, at least one UV protective layer, such as protective layer 116 b in FIG. 1B, may be a UV radiation reflector made of a high index transparent metal oxide. Since birds can see radiation in the UV range, a UV reflector may be implemented in embodiments positioned as outside windows in order to prevent birds from hitting the windows. In some other embodiments, UV radiation absorbing organic molecules and/or inorganic UV radiation absorbing nanoparticles (e.g., zinc oxide, indium oxide, ITO, etc.) may be incorporated within the electrolyte 106 material.
15. The method of claim 2, further comprising forming at least one transparent conductor layer and at least one protective layer configured to reduce degradation of the nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein forming at least one protective layer comprises forming a film of an electrically insulating material that prevents or reduces electrons from the solid state electrolyte from interaction with the nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer, wherein the electrons are generated by exposure of the electrochromic device to ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
17. The method of claim 2, wherein: the first electrode further comprises transparent conducting oxide nanoparticles; the nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer selectively modulates transmittance of visible radiation and a first range of near-infrared (NIR) radiation as a function of a voltage applied to the device; and
the transparent conducting oxide nanoparticles selectively modulate transmittance of a second range of NIR radiation as a function of the voltage applied to the device, wherein a portion of the second range overlaps with the first range.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein one or more dopant species in the transition metal oxide bronze layer comprise ions that cause a surface plasmon resonance effect on the one or more transition metal oxide bronze by creating delocalized electron carriers, wherein the delocalized electron carriers selectively modulate transmittance of the first range of NIR radiation in response to a first operating voltage applied to the device.
Lithium as an Investement: There is perhaps no better story than lithium right now among small caps. We’ve been covering the lithium sector here at Insider Financial and have already profiled Oroplata Resources Inc (OTCMKTS:ORRP) and Lithium Corporation (OTCMKTS:LTUM). Now we’re going to turn our attention to Lithium X Energy Corp, which trades under the symbols LIX in Canada, LIXXF on the OTC Markets, and RUT in Germany.
Lithium X Energy Corp. is a lithium exploration and development company with a goal of becoming a low-cost supplier for the burgeoning lithium battery industry. Lithium X owns 50%, and has the option to acquire up to 80% of the Sal de los Angeles lithium brine project in the prolific “Lithium Triangle” in mining friendly Salta province, Argentina, a well-known salar with positive historical economics, grade and size. Lithium X is also exploring a large land package in Nevada’s Clayton Valley, contiguous to the only producing lithium operation in North America – Silver Peak, owned and operated by Albemarle, the world’s largest lithium producer.
Lithium X Energy Corp Is Today’s Lithium Focus
Lithium Carbonate (below)
The Effects of UV Irradiation and Tilting on Xenopus laevis Development
How do lithium ions save eggs from UV irradiation?
Lithium ions block the phosphotidylinositol cycle, which is involved in intracellular signaling. Lithium causes animal cells to view a ventral mesodermal signal as a dorsal signal (Cooke et al. 1989). Lithium treated embryos express more goosecoid mRNA. Goosecoid is a homeobox gene, which are genes that encode DNA-binding proteins that are involved in the specification of positional information of the embryo (De Robertis et al. 1991). Goosecoid mRNA induces chordin, which is expressed in the dorsal lip and later throughout the notochord and other organizer-derived tissues. Chordin expression can rescue UV irradiated eggs. It is shown to induce secondary axis formation when injected to ventral vegetal blastomeres.
The Effects of UV Irradiation and Tilting on Xenopus laevis Development
California / April 11, 2017 (above) https://go.nasa.gov/2nCXhkF
South of Greenland / April 11, 2017 (above) https://go.nasa.gov/2nD3ugs
East of South America (above) https://go.nasa.gov/2nCZywd