Ionospheric Heaters Around the Globe – HAARP isn’t Lonely

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Ionospheric Heaters Around the Globe – HAARP isn’t Lonely

THE UNAUTHORIZED HISTORY OF HAARP
There has been considerable interest in the possibility the mysterious 0.9 Hz ULF signal observed by the ELFrad group is a result of HAARP broadcasts. I have been monitoring HAARP for sometime and noted a number of similar characteristics between the HAARP broadcasts and the dates, times and pulsing of the ULF signal. The name HAARP (High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program) would imply its major function is the creation of high-frequency or shortwave signals.

full article:
http://www.geoengineeringwatch.org/ionospheric-heaters-around-the-globe-haarp-isnt-lonely-2/

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Ionospheric heater
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An ionospheric heater, or an ionospheric HF pump facility, is a powerful radio wave transmitter with an array of antennas which is used for research of plasma turbulence, the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.[1] These transmitters operate in the high frequency (HF) range (3-30 MHz) at which radio waves are reflected from the ionosphere back to the ground. With such facilities a range of plasma turbulence phenomena can be excited in a semi-controlled fashion from the ground, during conditions when the ionosphere is naturally quiet and not perturbed by for example aurora. This stimulus-response type of research complements passive observations of naturally excited phenomena to learn about the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.

The plasma turbulence phenomena that are studied include different types on nonlinear wave interactions, in which different waves in the plasma couple and interact with the transmitted radio wave, formation and self organization of filamentary plasma structures, as well as electron acceleration. The turbulence is diagnosed by for example incoherent scatter radar, by detecting the weak electromagnetic emissions from the turbulence and optical emissions. The optical emissions result from the excitation of atmospheric atoms and molecules by electrons that have been accelerated in the plasma turbulence. As this process is the same as for the aurora, the optical emission excited by HF waves have sometimes been referred to as artificial aurora, although sensitive cameras are needed to detect these emissions, which is not the case for the real aurora.
Ionospheric HF pump facilities need to be sufficiently powerful to provide the possibility for plasma turbulence studies, although any radio wave that propagates in the ionosphere affects it by heating the electrons. That radio waves affect the ionosphere was discovered already in the 1930s with the Luxemburg effect. Although the research facilities need to have powerful transmitters, the power flux in the ionosphere for the most powerful facility (HAARP) is below 0.03 W/m2.[2] This gives an energy density in the ionosphere that is less than 1/100 of the thermal energy density of the ionospheric plasma itself.[1] The power flux may also be compared with the solar flux at the Earth’s surface of about 1.5 kW/m2. During aurora generally no ionospheric effects can be observed with the HF pump facilities as the radio wave power is strongly absorbed by the naturally heated ionosphere.

Current HF pump facilities
• EISCAT-Heating operated by the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) at Ramfjordmoen near Tromsø in Norway, capable of transmitting 1.2 MW or over 1 GW [1] [2] effective radiated power (ERP).
• SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) is an installation operated by UNIS (the University Centre in Svalbard) adjacent to the EISCAT facilities at Longyearbyen in Svalbard, capable of transmitting 192 kW or 28 MW ERP.
• Sura ionospheric heating facility in Vasilsursk near Nizhniy Novgorod in Russia, capable of transmitting 750 kW or 190 MW ERP.
• High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) north of Gakona, Alaska, capable of transmitting 3.6 MW or 4 GW ERP.
• HIgh Power Auroral Stimulation Observatory HIPAS Observatory northeast of Fairbanks, Alaska, capable of transmitting 1.2 MW or 70 MW ERP.
• 1B4/Atwood Ionospheric heater & Ionizer (GPS and thermodynamic equilibrium guided Electromagnetic pulse (impulse) generator & RF/microwave noise floor moderation system) is an installation operated by freecom wireless in Ontario, Canada. 1B4/Atwood’s operation is based on a novel concept known as Ionospheric Ionization Temperature. The system’s primary objective is to correct climate change attributed to artificial sources and to aid in the restoration of the ozone layer.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionospheric_heater

 

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Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator
Investigation of natural and artificial stimulation of the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator at high latitude
T. K. Yeoman, H. C. Scoffield, D. M. Wright, L. J. Baddeley, A. N. Vasilyevand N. V. Semenova; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK. ; Polar Geophysical Institute, Apatity, Murmansk region 184209, Russia

Abstract
A brief review is provided of recent progress in understanding the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR) at high latitude. Firstly, naturally-occurring resonances of the IAR as detected by pulsation magnetometers in the auroral zone at Sodankylä and in the polar cap at Barentsburg are considered.
The characteristics of the IAR in the two regions are broadly similar, although the effects of solar illumination are less clear at the higher latitudes. Secondly we review recent attempts to stimulate the IAR through high-power radio frequency experiments both in the auroral zone at Tromsø with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) heater, and within the polar cap at Longyearbyen with the Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR) facility. In the auroral zone at, Tromsø the stimulated IAR has been observed by ground-based magnetometers, and through electron acceleration observed on the FAST spacecraft. At SPEAR in the polar cap, the stimulated IAR has been investigated, with ground magnetometers, with the first results indicative of a positive detection.

The Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR) results from the vertical structure associated with the decay in plasma density going from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere…

Artificial stimulation of the IAR

…a summary of the first 10 years experiments aimed at the generation of artificial magnetic disturbances with the EISCAT heater. The average amplitude of EISCAT heater-induced artificial magnetic disturbances as detected on ground magnetometers in the vicinity of the heater is plotted as a function of the modulation frequency of the RF power. The induced signals are clearly strongest at the lower end of the frequency range, but significant signals are also indicated in the frequency range 1 -10 Hz, which covers the expected frequencies of the first few harmonics of the IAR.

… the IAR was driven to resonance by the high power ionospheric modification experiment.

…to investigate the in situ particles and fields in the IAR. The spacecraft data were examined during a transit of the spacecraft footprint over the ionosphere overlying the Tromsø heater during a modulated X-mode heating experiment at 4.04 MHz, as described by Robinson et al, (2000). The Tromsø heater was transmitting at high power with a 3 Hz modulation, and this resulted in the launch of Alfvén waves from the lower ionosphere into the magnetosphere, allowing the first observations of electron acceleration within the IAR. Cash et al., (2002) established the time-evolution of the 3 Hz signals in the electric field, and the downgoing electron flux at 32.3, 64.7, and 129.4 eV.

The polar cap
Whilst well-established high power ionospheric modification facilities such as the EISCAT heater at Tromsø have demonstrated the ability to perform controlled active experiments on the IAR at auroral latitudes, as detailed in section 3.1, until recently it was not possible to do such experiments at higher latitudes on the polar cap. SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) is a new high-power radar system located at 78.15°N latitude, 16.05°E longitude, located adjacent to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) in the vicinity of Longyearbyen (Spitzbergen) and is designed to carry out a range of space plasma investigations of the polar ionosphere and magnetosphere, including experiments to stimulate the IAR. The SPEAR antenna system comprises a 6×4 array of full-wave, crossed-dipoles,16m above the ground, with an antenna spacing of 48.4m, allowing the transmission of both linear and circularly polarised signals. The individual dipoles are rhombically broadened to allow operation between 4 and 6 MHz. The resulting beam has a quasi-elliptical cross-section, with an average half-power width of 21° along its major axis and 14° along its minor axis. This results in an overall antenna gain of 21 dB. During the operations reported here the complete 6×4 SPEAR array was available (48 transmitters), operating at 4.45 MHz. The transmitters were operated at 2kW, resulting in an ERP for SPEAR of ~ 15 MW. On 2 December 2005, as recently reported by Scoffield et al. (2006), a modulated X-mode ionospheric modification experiment was carried out at SPEAR, with the intention of artificially stimulating the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator.

… A combination of pulsation magnetometer data and modeling have established the basic morphology of the IAR, and how it is controlled by the dimensions, boundary conditions and plasma density of the resonant cavity.

https://lra.le.ac.uk/bitstream/2381/8157/3/18-IAR-tky-D3.4-0026-06%5B1%5D.pdf

 

spanda34_smallSimulation of Modes of Ionosphere Alfvén Resonator with High Quality Factors in the Case of Oblique Geomagnetic Field / Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications
Vol.4 No.5(2012), Article ID:19522,7 pages DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.45026 / Volodymyr Grimalsky1, Svetlana Koshevaya1*, Anatoliy Kotsarenko2, Marco A. Cruz Chavez1 /2012
Conclusions
The resonant frequencies, quality factors, and the profiles of magnetic field components of the ionosphere Alfvén resonator modes have been calculated. A general case of an oblique geomagnetic field has been considered. It has been demonstrated that even under the inclined geomagnetic field several modes exist that satisfy the conditions of a good localization, a weak dependence on the inclination of the geomagnetic field, and separability from another possible resonance oscillations. The calculated resonant frequencies are within the frequency range f = 1 – 6 Hz. The quality factors are of about 5 – 20, where. Therefore, the calculated quality factors are comparable with those for the Schumann resonances in the gap “Earth—ionosphere” and are quite high for geophysics.
The resonant frequencies can be modulated by acoustic gravity waves (AGW) and internal gravity waves (IGW) of ULF range, which are excited by lithosphere sources, move upwards, and reach the ionosphere F-layer. AGW and IGW can modulate the electron concentration of the ionosphere F-layer at heights z » 200 km, this leads to modification of parameters of IAR.

http://file.scirp.org/Html/2-9801303_19522.htm

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