VSF: The article below may explain the weird spirals between Guadalupe Island and Baja CA that are being generated by rf/microwave transmitters. Certainly the ‘patterns’ are almost identical! My guess is that this technology is already advanced way beyond what the report suggests.
Research on space plasma hurricanes could lead to new sources of energy
September 6, 2016 by James Roddey
A new study by researchers at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, funded by the National Science Foundation, has identified for the first time a process by which the solar wind is heated along extended regions of the Earth’s magnetic shield as it penetrates through this barrier. The process may have parallels to the unsolved problem in astrophysics of how the solar corona is heated. It may also be helpful for understanding the cross-scale transport of energy in man-made plasma devices that may lead to the creation of practical fusion power. …
“In space, the fast streaming plasma (solar wind) originating from the Sun creates large ‘space hurricanes,’ called Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves, at the boundary of Earth’s magnetic barrier,” said Nykyri. “The KH waves typically have wavelengths in range of 20,000-40,000 km and a 1-3 minute period, and as they steepen and roll-up like ocean waves they can transport solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere.”
The KH waves are a direct result of the way our planet fits into the larger solar system. Planet Earth is a gigantic magnet and its magnetic influence extends outward in a large bubble called a magnetosphere. A constant flow of particles from the Sun (solar wind) blows by the magnetosphere — not unlike wind blowing over the surface of the ocean. During certain situations, particles and energy (plasma) from the Sun can breach the magnetosphere, crossing into near-Earth space.
“Within plasma physics, this is a significant discovery,” said Moore. “Our understanding of this cross-scale energy transfer process came together gradually. There was not really an ‘aha’ moment, but the implications of our work became apparent when we realized how all the pieces of our research fit together.”
“We found that the giant KH waves can radiate ion-scale waves, or smaller ‘space tornadoes,’ that have sufficient energy to heat the plasma to the energies we observed,” said Nykyri. “This process transfers the kinetic energy from the solar wind into the heat energy of magnetospheric ions, explaining the rapid temperature increase through Earth’s magnetic barrier. If we could utilize this mechanism effectively in the high density laboratory plasmas by constructing appropriate transport barriers, we could create energy from water.” …
Technically, the study shows that the Embry-Riddle researchers have described for the first time the process of how energy is transferred from magnetohydrodynamic scale Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) plasma waves (with a wavelength of 36,000 km) to ion-scale magnetosonic waves that has sufficient Poynting flux to explain the observed heating from magnetosheath (shocked solar wind) into the magnetosphere. Scaling of this mechanism to typical coronal parameters suggests that it may also help explain the heating of the solar corona as well as play role in other astrophysical and laboratory plasmas with a velocity shear.
NASA grand challenge: UD research team awarded $1.2 million to study energy transport from the sun
Matthaeus and co-investigator Michael Shay, an associate professor in UD’s Department of Physics and Astronomy, have been awarded a three-year, $1.2 million grant from NASA’s Heliophysics Grand Challenges Program to explore how energy from the sun is transported across the heliosphere.
Scientists Arcadi Ismanov and Melvyn Goldstein from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and Vadim Roytershteyn at the Space Sciences Institute also will collaborate on the project.
The UD team will draw on their expertise in theoretical physics and reconnection physics, respectively, to develop simulation models of solar energy transport from macro- to micro-scales, ranging from the global solar wind to microscopic movement of space plasma, which makes up the solar wind, stars and lightning.
“We’re working to explain something in nature that has never been explained before,” says Matthaeus.
“The coupling between these different regimes is one of the most fundamental problems in space physics and one of the greatest ones,” notes Shay, who will be using supercomputers across the country to do the massive calculations required in the research.
The project’s “cross-scale couplings” will involve turbulence theory and modeling, plasma physics theory and kinetic plasma simulation.
Recently, Matthaeus and Shay met with experts in ocean sciences, engineering, and other fields to create a new working group on the UD campus. Turbulence Research on Environmental and Astrophysical Transport (TREAT) will examine issues of turbulence, the violent movement of air and water, and also investigate how findings about ocean wave flow may inform space science and the propagation of the solar wind.
“Sometimes bursts of solar wind — coronal mass ejections — shake Earth so hard they cause reconnection events,” Matthaeus says, referring to the crossing and reconnecting of the magnetic fields that travel in opposite directions at the planet’s poles.
That’s when large amounts of energetic solar wind particles, trapped by Earth’s magnetic field, are accelerated toward Earth. These high-energy particles can potentially knock out satellites, disrupting communications, take out power grids, and cause planes to be re-routed from flying over the poles to avoid exposing pilots and passengers to harmful radiation.
Cross-scale energy transport in space plasmas
The solar wind is a supersonic magnetized plasma streaming far into the heliosphere. Although cooling as it flows, it is rapidly heated upon encountering planetary obstacles. At Earth, this interaction forms the magnetosphere and its sub-regions. The present paper focuses on particle heating across the boundary separating the shocked solar wind and magnetospheric plasma, which is driven by mechanisms operating on fluid, ion and electron scales. The cross-scale energy transport between these scales is a compelling and fundamental problem of plasma physics. Here, we present evidence of the energy transport between fluid and ion scales: free energy is provided in terms of a velocity shear generating fluid-scale Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. We show the unambiguous observation of an ion-scale magnetosonic wave packet, inside a Kelvin–Helmholtz vortex, with sufficient energy to account for observed ion heating. The present finding has universal consequences in understanding cross-scale energy transport, applicable to environments experiencing velocity shears during comparable plasma regimes.
Multi-scale gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak plasmas: enhanced heat loss due to cross-scale coupling of plasma turbulence
The transport of heat in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas is dominated by the complex nonlinear dynamics of plasma turbulence. In magnetically confined plasmas used for fusion energy research, turbulence is responsible for cross-field transport that limits the performance of tokamak reactors. We report a set of novel gyrokinetic simulations that capture ion and electron-scale turbulence simultaneously, revealing the dynamics of cross-scale energy transfer and zonal flow modification that give rise to heat losses. Multi-scale simulations are required to match experimental ion and electron heat fluxes and electron profile stiffness, establishing the applicability of the newly discovered physics to experiment. Importantly, these results provide a likely explanation for the loss of electron heat from tokamak plasmas, the ‘great unsolved problem’ (Bachelor et al (2007 Plasma Sci. Technol. 9 312–87)) in plasma turbulence and the projected dominant loss channel in ITER.
Wireless power transfer (WPT) or wireless energy transmission is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load, such as an electrical power grid or a consuming device, without the use of discrete human-made conductors. Wireless power is a generic term that refers to a number of different power transmission technologies that use time-varying electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields. In wireless power transfer, a wireless transmitter connected to a power source conveys the field energy across an intervening space to one or more receivers, where it is converted back to an electrical current and then used. Wireless transmission is useful to power electrical devices in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or are not possible.
Wireless power techniques fall into two categories, non-radiative and radiative. In non-radiative techniques, power is typically transferred by magnetic fields using inductive coupling between coils of wire. Applications of this type include electric toothbrush chargers, RFID tags, smartcards, and chargers for implantable medical devices like artificial cardiac pacemakers, and inductive powering or charging of electric vehicles like trains or buses. A current focus is to develop wireless systems to charge mobile and handheld computing devices such as cellphones, digital music players and portable computers without being tethered to a wall plug. Power may also be transferred by electric fields using Capacitive coupling between metal electrodes. In radiative far-field techniques, also called power beaming, power is transferred by beams of electromagnetic radiation, like microwaves or laser beams. These techniques can transport energy longer distances but must be aimed at the receiver. Proposed applications for this type are solar power satellites, and wireless powered drone aircraft.
Japan and China both have national ambitions to begin on-orbit testing of Solar Power Satellites by the 2030s which may accelerate both technical and regulatory progress.
An important issue associated with all wireless power systems is limiting the exposure of people and other living things to potentially injurious electromagnetic fields (see Electromagnetic radiation and health).