US Patent 3445844 – May 20, 1969 – Trapped Electromagnetic Radiation Communications System
… one hop reflective long distance communication systems have been proposed utilizing a ground created reflective zone or layer of an ionized atmosphere. This reflective layer could be obtained using seeding techniques or possibly by the injection of neutrons to form a reflective cloud in the atmosphere. In spite of the fact that communications have been successfully attempted utilizing seeding for one hop point-to-point over the horizon reflective communications links, seeded ionized clouds have been difficult to control, particularly due to the suns adverse effect. Although all the aforementioned systems have had some success, either their cost or complexity has produced a requirement for a more inexpensive and reliable system to obtain world wide communications.
Accordingly, it is the principal object of this invention to provide a new, useful, and improved highly reliable world wide communications system. Another object of this invention is to provide an over the horizon communications system which utilizes a waveguide duct in the ionosphere to trap electromagnetic radiation. Still another object of this invention is to create an electromagnetically generated ionized cloud to provide a means for injecting electromagnetic radiation into an ionospheric waveguide duct. A further object of this invention is to provide a means for extracting electromagnetic radiation trapped within an ionospheric waveguide duct.
In accordance with the communications system of this invention, electromagentic radiation is artificially injected into and trapped within an atmospheric Waveguide duct. The trapped radiation then propogates within said atmospheric waveguide duct. The trapped radiation then propogates within said atmospheric waveguide duct around the earth. Devices positioned around the earths periphery are utilized to receive a portion of trapped radiation either by detecting radiation scattered by natural or artificially generated scaters positioned within the waveguide duct. …
FIG. 1 illustrates a long distance communications system following the principles of this invention and which comprises a transmitter 11 disposed at a point on the earth 10. The transmitter 11 will be described in conjunction with an explanation of FIGS. 4 and 5. Transmitter 11 provides electromagnetic energy to antenna 12. Antenna 12 then focuses this energy or radiation, shown as arrows 13, to form an ionized cloud or scatterer 14, within the ionospheric region of the atmosphere. A suitable antenna for generating the ionized cloud 14 will be described at a later time in conjunction with the explanation of FIGS. 2, 3, 4 and 5 of the accompanying drawings. The ionized cloud 14 is shown positioned slightly above the ionospheric bottom layer 20, but substantially below the F layer 23 of the ionospheric region.
The ionized cloud 14 is believed to be generated in the following manner: electrons that already exist in the ionospheric region of the upper atmosphere are accelerated by electromagnetic radiation which is focused from the ground. These electrons are accelerated by the radiation to a degree such that their kinetic energy reaches the level needed for the occurrence of ionizing collisions. Cloud 14 is a result of these ionizing collisions. Scattering from this cloud takes place due to the discontinuity between this zone of enhanced ionization and the surrounding medium. The shape and the properties of the scatterer can be adjusted by controlling the properties of the antenna used, the amount of power provided by the antenna, and the phase of the energy emitted by various portions of the antenna. For example, the preferred embodiment of this invention utilizes a transmitter 11 and antenna 12 operating at a frequency of 50 megacycles, and which provides 26 megawatts of peak power and 260 kilowatts of average power. Antenna 12 focuses the energy to produce a cloud 14 approximately 80 kilometers above the earths surface. The ionized cloud formed has a mean width of approximately 15 meters and a length of approximately 60 meters. Due to the focusing, the ionized cloud has a shape which comes to a point at its greatest distance from the earths surface and tapers in the manner of a cone at its widest point. The ionized cloud of this invention also has a variation of the electric field in the cloud versus the height from the antenna which is positive. The antenna used is in a nearfield arrangement. In other words, with increasing distance in the resulting cloud 14 there is an increasing field. This does not happen with an unfocused antenna of the far-field type. An unfocused antenna has a radiation pattern which spreads at greater distances from the antenna and its electric field decreases with increasing range. In our case dE/dh 0 where E is the E field vector and h is the distance from the antenna above the earths surface. It is to be noted that the life of our scatterer or cloud persists essentially as long as the ground transmitter is on. This constitutes a basic advantage with respect to any other suggested artificial scatterer, such as that which could be produced by seeding. Accordingly, this system utilizing an ionized cloud which is generated from the earth and which is controllable from the earth is highly superior to any technique which is completely out of the control of the operators.
My photos taken Oct.21, 2016: These two (above & below) with darker cobalt blue skies have been intentionally enhanced by me to show the structure more clearly.