Gold Nanoparticles: Properties and Applications / The use of metals sprayed into planetary atmospheres is likely a conventional technology for the colonization of planets in the galaxies.

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VSF:  The Anunnaki used gold to protect the atmosphere of Nibiru. Extracting the gold from south Africa was their initial priority. The use of metals sprayed into planetary atmospheres is likely a conventional technology for the colonization of planets in the galaxies.

Gold Nanoparticles: Properties and Applications
Colloidial gold nanoparticles have been utilized for centuries by artists due to the vibrant colors produced by their interaction with visible light. More recently, these unique optical-electronics properties have been researched and utilized in high technology applications such as organic photovoltaics, sensory probes, therapeutic agents, drug delivery in biological and medical applications, electronic conductors and catalysis. The optical and electronic properties of gold nanoparticles are tunable by changing the size, shape, surface chemistry, or aggregation state.

Optical & Electronics Properties of Gold Nanoparticles

Gold nanoparticles interaction with light is strongly dictated by their environment, size and physical dimensions. Oscillating electric fields of a light ray propagating near a colloidal nanoparticle interact with the free electrons causing a concerted oscillation of electron charge that is in resonance with the frequency of visible light.

These resonant oscillations are known as surface plasmons. For small (~30nm) monodisperse gold nanoparticles the surface plasmon resonance phenomona causes an absorption of light in the blue-green portion of the spectrum (~450 nm) while red light (~700 nm) is reflected, yielding a rich red color. As particle size increases, the wavelength of surface plasmon resonance related absorption shifts to longer, redder wavelengths. Red light is then absorbed, and blue light is reflected, yielding solutions with a pale blue or purple color (Figure 1). As particle size continues to increase toward the bulk limit, surface plasmon resonance wavelengths move into the IR portion of the spectrum and most visible wavelengths are reflected, giving the nanoparticles clear or translucent color. The surface plasmon resonance can be tuned by varying the size or shape of the nanoparticles, leading to particles with tailored optical properties for different applications.

Applications
The range of applications for gold nanoparticles is growing rapidly and includes:1. Electronics – Gold nanoparticles are designed for use as conductors from printable inks to electronic chips.

1 As the world of electronics become smaller, nanoparticles are important components in the chip design. Nanoscale gold nanoparticles are being used to connect resistors, conductors, and other elements of an electronic chip.

2. Photodynamic Therapy – Near-IR absorbing gold nanoparticles (including gold nanoshells and nanorods) produce heat when excited by light at wavelengths from 700 to 800 nm. This enables these nanoparticles to eradicate targeted tumors.2 When light is applied to a tumor containing gold nanoparticles, the particles rapidly heat up, killing tumor cells in a treatment also known as hyperthermia therapy.

3. Therapeutic Agent Delivery – Therapeutic agents can also be coated onto the surface of gold nanoparticles.3 The large surface area-to-volume ratio of gold nanoparticles enables their surface to be coated with hundreds of molecules (including therapeutics, targeting agents, and anti-fouling polymers).

4. Sensors – Gold nanoparticles are used in a variety of sensors. For example, a colorimetric sensor based on gold nanoparticles can identify if foods are suitable for consumption.4 Other methods, such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, exploit gold nanoparticles as substrates to enable the measurement of vibrational energies of chemical bonds. This strategy could also be used for the detection of proteins, pollutants, and other molecules label-free.

5. Probes – Gold nanoparticles also scatter light and can produce an array of interesting colors under dark-field microscopy. The scattered colors of gold nanoparticles are currently used for biological imaging applications.5 Also, gold nanoparticles are relatively dense, making them useful as probes for transmission electron microscopy.

6. Diagnostics – Gold nanoparticles are also used to detect biomarkers in the diagnosis of heart diseases, cancers, and infectious agents.6 They are also common in lateral flow immunoassays, a common household example being the home pregnancy test.

7. Catalysis – Gold nanoparticles are used as catalysts in a number of chemical reactions.7  The surface of a gold nanoparticle can be used for selective oxidation or in certain cases the surface can reduce a reaction (nitrogen oxides). Gold nanoparticles are being developed for fuel cell applications. These technologies would be useful in the automotive and display industry.
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/materials-science/nanomaterials/gold-nanoparticles.html

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Process for producing gold nanoparticles
US 7232474 B2 / July 9, 2004
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention
This invention relates to a process for producing gold nanoparticles.
Nanomaterials with size-dependent physical properties provide a plethora of opportunities for diversified and novel applications. In particular, gold nanoparticles are very attractive for research in nanotechnology because of their appealing features. For example, TiO2-supported gold nanoparticles display highly selective catalytic activity for CO oxidation at −70° C. [M. Haruta, Catalysis Today 1997, 36, 153], while particles with diameters of 3-5 nm show a drastic decrease of the melting point. [Ph. Buffat et al, Phys. Rev. 1976, A13, 2287]. Moreover, non-toxic gold colloids, readily and inexpensively prepared by chemical reduction of HAuCl4, are capable of forming active complexes with many biological substances.

https://www.google.com/patents/US7232474

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BACKGROUND

[0003] One of the most important areas of research in the general field of nanotechnology is in the development of nanomedicines, which refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases. See, e.g. Park, K. J. Controlled Release 2007, 120, 1-3. The importance of this area is highlighted by the recent establishment of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/nanomedicine/), where over $1 billion has been committed in an attempt to revolutionize the areas of therapeutics and diagnostics through the development and application of nanotechnology and nanodevices.

One of the most exciting areas of nanomedicine is the development of nanodevices for theragnostics, which refers to a combination of diagnostics and therapeutics for tailored treatment of diseases. The synthesis of nanodevices that incorporate therapeutic agents, molecular targeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities have been described as the next generation nanomedicines and have the potential to dramatically improve the therapeutic outcome of drug therapy (e.g. Nasongkla, N. et al. Nano Lett. 2006, 6, 2427-2430) and lead to the development of personalized medicine, where the device may be tailored for treatment of individual patients on the basis of their genetic profiles. While there is almost unanimous agreement in the scientific community that these next generation nanomedicines will provide clinically important theragnosis devices, they have yet to be clinically realized.

[0019] In further aspects, the disclosure is directed to a method of treating a disease or disorder by administering a gold nanoparticle conjugate to a patient in need of treatment of said disease or disorder. In various embodiments, the targeting agent localizes the nanoparticle conjugate to the site of the disease or disorder. The therapeutic agent treats said disease or disorder. The method can be further combined with imaging the gold nanoparticle conjugate at the disease location.

[0063] “Pharmaceutically acceptable salt” refers to a salt of a compound, which possesses the desired pharmacological activity of the parent compound. Such salts include acid addition salts, formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like; or formed with organic acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, hexanoic acid, cyclopentanepropionic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, 1,2-ethane-disulfonic acid, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 4-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 4-toluenesulfonic acid, camphorsulfonic acid, 4-methylbicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-2-ene-1-carboxylic acid, glucoheptonic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, trimethylacetic acid, tertiary butylacetic acid, lauryl sulfuric acid, gluconic acid, glutamic acid, hydroxynaphthoic acid, salicylic acid, stearic acid, muconic acid, and the like; and salts formed when an acidic proton present in the parent compound is replaced by a metal ion, e.g., an alkali metal ion, an alkaline earth ion, or an aluminum ion; or coordinates with an organic base such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methylglucamine, and the like. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt is the hydrochloride salt. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt is the sodium salt.

Nanoparticles

[0117]The present disclosure is directed to modified gold nanoparticles. The term “nanoparticle” as referred to herein means a particle including gold metal organic framework having at least one special dimension measurable less than a micron in length. Nanoparticles include conventionally known nanoparticles such as nanorods, nanospheres and nanoplatelets. In various embodiments, for example, nanospheres can be a rod, sphere, or any other three dimensional shape. Nanoparticles are generally described, for example, in Burda et al., Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 10251102.

Gold Nanoparticles

[0118] Gold nanostructures have architectures which provide tunable optical properties. In various embodiments, gold nanoparticles are configured for optical imaging techniques. For example, the optical and electronic properties can be controlled by controlling the size of the nanoparticle, varying the aspect ratio, or rationally assembling nanorods into a specific shape. Those of skill in the art will understand that the size of the gold nanoparticle can be designed to have specific properties for different applications. For example, the size of the gold nanoparticle can be designed for colorimeric detection, as described in Martin and Mitchell, Anal. Chem. 1998 pp. 332. Additionally, due to their tunable optical properties, multifunctional polymer modified gold nanoparticles can be employed as imaging agents through dark field and confocal microscopy.

[0119] Gold nanorods have been used for cancer therapy. Alteration of their shape and size has proven a useful tool to preferentially kill cancer cells through near-infrared lasers and modification with PEG polymers has increased their biocompatibility.2 Gold nanoparticles may be prepared by methods known in the art, including those disclosed by Burda et al., Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 102{tilde over (5)}1102 and Daniel and Astruc Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 29{tilde over (3)}346. Growth methods, including the template, electrochemical, or seeded growth methods, are disclosed by Perez-Juste et al., Coordination Chemistry Reviews 249 (2005) 1870-1901. Seed particle methods are further described in Murphy et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 13857-13870. Gold nanoparticles can also be prepared to have specific surface structures by citrate reduction, two phage synthesis and thiol stabilization, sulfur stabilization, and stabilization with other ligands as described by Daniel and Astruc, Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 293346.

http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20090060839

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