Magnetized plasma turbulence is well-described by magnetohydrodynamics / Worldview Nov.2, 2016 / East of South America & north of Antarctica


Magnetized plasma turbulence is well-described by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), which describes the plasma as an electrically conducting fluid.

WIKI: Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, “anything formed”) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma has properties unlike those of the other states. A plasma can be created by heating a gas or subjecting it to a strong electromagnetic field applied with a laser or microwave generator. This decreases or increases the number of electrons, creating positive or negative charged particles called ions, and is accompanied by the dissociation of molecular bonds, if present. The presence of a significant number of charge carriers makes plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Like gas, plasma does not have a definite shape or a definite volume unless enclosed in a container. Unlike gas, under the influence of a magnetic field, it may form structures such as filaments, beams and double layers.

Plasma is the most abundant form of ordinary matter in the Universe (of the forms proven to exist; the more abundant dark matter is hypothetical and may or may not be explained by ordinary matter), most of which is in the rarefied intergalactic regions, particularly the intracluster medium, and in stars, including the Sun.

Physics Forums: Plasma consists of electrically charged particles, whereas radiation is EM photons.  Plasmas are more destructive. Energetic EM radiation can, however, generate plasmas in earth’s atmosphere. Yes normally when we look at the two effects we talk about plasma and radiation.

A plasma is simply an ionized gas in which electrons are separated from nuclei or ions. The energies required to ionize atoms is on the order of eV. Some plasmas, particularly fusion plasmas would have temperatures in the keV range, which is low energy for radiation. Radiation would encompass ions, electrons and photons, over a broad range of energies. High energy radiation has energy in the high keV to MeV range. A plasma is a collective group of charged particles. It consists of both positive and negative particles and there has to be enough particles present in a volume so that they interact in a collective way.

So if a space ship meets a plasma the plasma particles will move to shield the electrical field from the space ship so that the field is zero inside the plasma. This is called Debye shielding. Radiation can be single particles of either positive or negative charge and of course photons. There is no collective behaviour. You can get radiation from a plasma. In fact a little plasma radiation brightens up everybody on the beach. Plasmas can cause damage by their collective behaviour. By trying to shield an electrical field they can charge up a space craft and cause particles from the plasma to strike the space craft at high speeds and damage the space craft.

Radio-frequency beneath aerosol cloud cover above Antarctica in the Pacific Ocean (below). Where is the transmitter? Floating around the ocean over the undersea abyss, the Amundsen Plain?



North of Antarctica in the middle of the Pacific / Nov.2, 2016



Krakow & Fildes Peninsula on the east side of South America, just North of Antarctica (above & below)



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