“The Earth’s Ionosphere, Plasma Physics & Electrodynamics” is a textbook written by Michael C. Kelley, an acclaimed teacher on the Ionosphere who has analyzed much of the data from satellites and rockets. Here he discusses his uses of radar and rocketry to study the ionosphere and speculates about promising new studies of potential earthquake detection. This is an open discussion of barium clouds and HAARP from a professor at Cornell University. March 2013.
Excerpts of the video as my notes: The experiments with plasma physics in the 60s & 70s – As plasma physics became a discipline – the earth is so rich in processes that can be seen. Gamma rays from lightning, the aurora, being able to fly rockets & satellites through it. An amazing laboratory.
Started at Arecibo the ionospheric modification work facilities. What initiated and drove the initial desire to do that work. What has actually come out the various ionospheric modification facilities. When you use radar you are being a passive observer. Until the so called “active” experiments were evolved. @33:25 One of the major active experiments of releasing these large clouds of barium ions. That’s an interesting history itself. If you want to actively study a physical process, you put up a large cloud.
What made people want to do these active experiments with Barium? It had to do with the Test Ban Treaty. Once the treaty was signed, it turns out that the structures associated with high altitude nuclear explosions, they are identical essentially to what happens in a large barium … put out a large barium cloud and blow a wind through it, then one side of the cloud becomes highly structured. And that’s very similar to a nuclear explosion and the plasma goes out and then decelerates, an effect of gravity.
The plasma version of the classic Raleigh-Taylor Instability. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayleigh%E2%80%93Taylor_instability
So the people who were studying what would happen in a nuclear war, because of the Test Ban Treaty, were left with the only option of (using barium clouds) theoretically and experimentally.
That was the beginning of what we call ACTIVE EXPERIMENTS IN SPACE.
The notion that in the case of the barium, you put a high density medium – not really explosive, but it’s released – the other idea was suppose you could dump energy with radio waves, so do an experiment where you put in a known amount of energy and study the results. And the other idea was that you could do inertial fusion – you could take a pellet of frozen deuterium and then collapse it by shining lasers or beams on it then you could make a small hydrogen bomb and extract energy and do it all over again –
Well, the physics of that is essentially the same as reflecting a high powered radio wave off the Ionosphere. If you shine a flashlight on a mirror, the signal reflects, but with a really high-powered light, like a laser you start to reflect the medium that tries to reflect itself. You dump all this energy in and then use facilities like Arecibo to interpret. Small amounts of energy could create non-linear effects.
The Russians were really heavily involved. That’s part of the reason too that we were concerned that the Russians [Woodpecker] were doing this kind of work. … Sending up a radio waves …showed structures … at a particular wave length… The original HEATER EXPERIMENTS were done in Colorado. There have been some published multi radar frequency studies of this …the rocket data was exciting. The other idea is that you could use the atmosphere as an antenna – work done up in Alaska to try to create a signal that could transmit to a submarine, the so called ELF. The interest in that has wained.
For reasons that Michael C. Kelley doesn’t seem to totally understand, HAARP seems to be surviving. The disadvantage of HAARP for Kelley is that it just doesn’t have the diagnostics. The interest in going back to Arecibo, is that Arecibo has the diagnostics to understand what’s going on. But a lot of money was spent (on HAARP). [they laugh…]
Climate change work at Arecibo? Institutions need funding. @42:20
Full interview & discussion video: https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/41287
If you google ACTIVE EXPERIMENTS IN THE IONOSPHERE, you will get many links, including the following:
OPTICAL AND RADAR TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO CHEMICAL RELEASE “ACITVE EXPERIMENTS” IN THE IONOSPHERE/THERMOSPHERE SYSTEM
by Michael Mendillo, Jeffrey Baumgardner and Peter J. Sultan, Center for Space Physics, Boston University, Boston MA.
I.1 Introduction to ACTIVE EXPERIMENTS: “…barium plasma injections in the ionosphere or magnetosphere result in observable effects… Ionospheric heating effects generally last as long as the heating is applied, often in the 10’s of minutes domain. The end result is that active experiments require a comprehensive set of multi-diagnostic instruments that can handle the small time constants associated with the induced effects. …[the Chapter 9, page 250 pdf concentrates] on the chemical release experiments used in ionospheric investigations…
I.2 Types of Chemical Release Experiments
Chemically induced ionospheric modification experiments involve either the enhancement of ambient plasma densities or their depletion. …the most widely used technique involves the release of barium …an element that is ionized by solar ultraviolet… Strontium (Sr) vapor has been used in conjunction with Ba [barium] release experiments …releases of other species such as trimethyl aluminum (TMA), cesium, calcium, etc.
The second type of chemical release experiment involves the release of molecules that react very rapidly with ambient ionospheric plasma…These…modify the ionosphere via recombination chemistry (plasma neutralization) that leaves the ionospheric F-region plasma in a depleted (“ionospheric hole”) state.
II. Incoherent Scatter Radar Techniques Applied to Active Experiments
Incoherent scatter radar…is based on the fact that an upwardly propagating radio wave that is higher in frequency than the plasma frequency anywhere along its path will be weakly re-radiated by the free electrons of the ionosphere … Incoherent scatter radar is a unique and ideal diagnostic instrument…a typical chemical release cloud from a sounding rocket payload reaches an approximate maximum radius of …50 km…
…in 1985…the Space Shuttle’s OMS engines were used to generate an ionospheric hole above New England… [one wonders how many such “holes” have been generated in the ionosphere since 1985!]
Arecibo in Puerto Rico is an Incoherent Scatter Radar Facility.
A problem unique to ACTIVE EXPERIMENTS is that the composition of the observed ionospheric plasma is changed by the released species, and the radar is often faced with ions not usually present in the natural ionosphere. A spectral analysis program that is not expected to handle unusual ions will misinterpret the presence of those ions as changes in other parameters (i.e., temperature). [In my words they are creating false ‘compositions’ with these injections and analyzing mixtures of ions that don’t exists in the natural ionosphere!]
Off the east of of South America / Uruguay? (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2fJxiTQ
An area north of Antarctica, very west of S. Amer. Nov.11, 2016 (two above)
Sea of Okhotsk / Sakhalin / north of Hokkaido Japan (two above)
Alberta Canada (two above) Nov.11, 2016 http://go.nasa.gov/2fFnoAd