Prospects For Physics-Based Modulation Of Global Change
by Edward Teller and Lowell Wood – Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-6010 and Roderick Hyde – University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94551-0808
This paper was prepared for submittal to the 22nd International Seminar on Planetary Emergencies / Erice (Sicily), Italy August 20-23, 1997
It has been suggested that large-scale climate changes, mostly due to atmospheric injection of “greenhouse gases” connected with fossil-fired energy production, should be forestalled by internationally-agreed reductions in, e.g., electricity generation. The potential economic impacts of such limitations are obviously large: ³$1011/year. We propose that for far smaller — <1% — costs, the mean thermal effects of “greenhouse gases” may be obviated in any of several distinct ways, some of them novel. These suggestions are all based on scatterers that prevent a small fraction of solar radiation from reaching all or part of the Earth. We propose research directed to quite near-term realization of one or more of these inexpensive approaches to cancel the effects of the “greenhouse gas” injection. …
Employed near-optimally, tens of thousands of tons of high-conductivity metal – roughly 1% of the required mass of dielectric materials – are required to scatter 1% of the Earth’s total insolation; the corresponding costs are $0.07-0.14 billion/year. In principle, the most effective of all possible scatterers are atoms or molecules that scatter light in resonance.
The Kuril Islands (two above) or Kurile Islands (/ˈkʊərɪl/, /ˈkjʊərɪl/, or /kjʊˈriːl/; Russian: Кури́льские острова́, tr. Kurilskiye ostrova; IPA: [kʊˈrʲilʲskʲɪjə ɐstrɐˈva]; Japanese: Kuriru rettō (クリル列島?, “Kuril Islands”) or Chishima rettō (千島列島?, “Chishima Islands”)), in Russia’s Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately 1,300 km (810 mi) northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean.
There are 56 islands and many minor rocks. It consists of Greater Kuril Ridge and Lesser Kuril Ridge. The total land area is 10,503.2 square kilometres (4,055.3 sq mi) and the total population is 19,434.
All the islands are currently under Russian jurisdiction. Japan claims the two southernmost large islands (Iturup and Kunashir) as part of its territory, as well as Shikotan and the Habomai islets, which has led to the ongoing Kuril Islands dispute. The disputed islands are known in Japan as the country’s “Northern Territories”.
Oki Islands (two below) (隠岐諸島 Oki-shotō?, or 隠岐の島 Oki-no-shima, 隠岐群島 Oki-guntō) is an archipelago in the Sea of Japan, the islands of which are administratively part of Oki District, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The islands have a total area of 346.1 square kilometres (133.6 sq mi). Only four of the sixteen named islands are permanently inhabited. Much of the archipelago is within the borders of Daisen-Oki National Park. Due to their geological heritage, the Oki Islands were designated a UNESCO Global Geopark in September 2014.
The Oki Islands have been inhabited since the Japanese Paleolithic era, and numerous artifacts from the Jomon, Yayoi and Kofun periods have been found by archaeologists, indicating continuous human occupation and activity.
south & west of Tasmania/Australia (four above) Nov.14, 2016