Ice Nucleation on Atmospheric Aerosols / Ice nucleation active bacteria… / and Worldview Nov.22, 2016: South Korea, Yellow Sea & Bohai Sea, Sakhalin, Japan & South Korea, North of Antarctica & south of New Zealand, “Surfactants” North of Antarctica & south of Australia

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VSF: Two  recent science papers 2012 & 2004, discussing the “ice nucleation on atmospheric aerosols.”  This is how they are generating winter storms as the planet is in meltdown. If you know the correct terms to locate these technologies, you can easily find a plethora of critical revealing information. There are scientific reports on Ionsopheric heaters, such as HAARP under the terminology of ACTIVE EXPERIMENTS IN SPACE to obfuscate and thus confuse the curious uneducated.


Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9817–9854, 2012 / www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/9817/2012/ © Author(s) 2012.

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Heterogeneous ice nucleation on atmospheric aerosols: a review of results from laboratory experiments  / C. Hoose and O. Mohler
Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research – Atmospheric Aerosol Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany / Published: 29 October 2012

Abstract: A small subset of the atmospheric aerosol population has the ability to induce ice formation at conditions under which ice would not form without them (heterogeneous ice nucleation). … numerous studies have attempted to quantify the ice nucleation ability of different particles empirically in laboratory experiments. … Ice nucleation “onset” conditions for various mineral dust, soot, biological, organic and ammonium sulfate particles are summarized. Typical temperature-supersaturation regions can be identified for the “onset” of ice nucleation of these different particle types, but the various particle sizes and activated fractions reported in different studies have to be taken into account when comparing results obtained with different methodologies. … dust mineralogy is not a consistent predictor of higher or lower ice nucleation ability. … a reduction of deposition nucleation by various coatings on mineral dust.  … Estimated average INAS densities are high for ice-nucleation active bacteria at high subzero temperatures. … INAS densities of some other biological aerosols, like certain pollen grains, fungal spores and diatoms, tend to be similar to those of dust. These particles may owe their high ice nucleation onsets to their large sizes. Surface-area-dependent parameterizations of heterogeneous ice nucleation are discussed. For immersion freezing on mineral dust …

1 Introduction: Ice crystals in the atmosphere have important impacts on radiative transfer, precipitation formation, and the microphysical and optical properties of clouds. Therefore, their formation has been studied both in the field and under controlled conditions in laboratory experiments since many years… It is known that water droplets in the atmosphere do not freeze instantaneously at 0◦C. Their freezing can either be triggered by aerosol particles acting as a so-called ice nuclei (IN), or occur homogeneously (without IN) at about  − 38◦C   The goal of many laboratory studies was and is to assess the ice nucleation ability of selected aerosol particles of a …

http://search.proquest.com/openview/421dd0783b387a8e030902328dcc6f23/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=105744

J. Phys. IV France 121 (2004) 87-103
DOI: 10.1051/jp4:2004121004
Ice nucleation active bacteria and their potential role in precipitation
C.E. Morris1, D.G. Georgakopoulos2 and D.C. Sands3
1  INRA, Unité de Pathologie Végétale, BP. 94, 84140 Montfavet, France
2  Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Laboratory of Microbiology, Iera Odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece
3  Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, AgBioSciences Building, Montana State University, Bozeman MT 59717-0001, USA
Abstract:
 Certain bacteria that are commonly found on plants have the capacity to catalyze the freezing of supercooled water at temperatures as warm as -1C. This is conferred by a protein in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell. Because of the abundance of these bacteria and the warm temperature at which they function as ice nuclei, they are considered to be among the most active of the naturally-occurring ice nuclei. As plant pathogens, antagonists of plant pathogens and as causal agents of frost damage, these bacteria have well-studied interactions with plants. Here we propose that these bacteria also play a role in atmospheric processes leading to rain, given that they are readily disseminated into the atmosphere and have been found in clouds at altitudes of several kilometers. That they participate in a sort of biological cycle of precipitation – whereby they are transported into clouds from plant canopies and incite rain thereby causing favorable conditions for their growth on plant surfaces – was proposed about 20 years ago. Today, sufficient evidence and meteorological tools have emerged to re-ignite interest in bioprecipitation and in the ways in which plants play a role as cloud seeders.
http://jp4.journaldephysique.org/articles/jp4/abs/2004/09/jp4121004/jp4121004.html

 

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South Korea / Yellow Sea & Bohai Sea (two above)        http://go.nasa.gov/2fDIbDI

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http://go.nasa.gov/2gfyHlu

Sakhalin (Russian: Сахалин, pronounced [səxɐˈlʲin]) is a large Russian island (two above) in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50′ and 54°24′ N. It is Russia’s largest island, and is administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. Sakhalin, which is about one fifth the size of Japan, is just off the east coast of Russia, and just north of Japan.
The indigenous peoples of the island are the Ainu, Oroks and Nivkhs.[2] Sakhalin was claimed by both Russia and Japan over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries. These disputes sometimes involved military conflict and divisions of the island between the two powers. Russia has held all of the island since seizing the Japanese portion in the final days of World War II in 1945. (Japan no longer claims any of Sakhalin, though it does claim some nearby islands.) Most Ainu on Sakhalin moved to Hokkaido when the Japanese were displaced from the island in 1949.[3]

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Japan & South Korea (above)   http://go.nasa.gov/2fDEKNc

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North of Antarctica & south of New Zealand (three above): The weird looking pond-scum stuff is said to be evidence of “surfactants”:   Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.   WIKI
http://go.nasa.gov/2fDEyNW

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North of Antarctica & south of Australia (two above)

http://go.nasa.gov/2fDErlE

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