My photo above taken on the Olympic Peninsula WA from my home.
The effect of electron emission processes on micro- and nanoparticle charges in the dusty plasma for engineering applications
Vasiliy N. Savin, Sergey I. Mol’kov / St. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics
Volume 2, Issue 3, October 2016, Pages 224–230
In this paper, the charge-balance, the energy-balance and the moment equations and Poisson’s equation have been used to describe the charging process for a dust particle in the undisturbed plasma taking into account the emission variety (secondary electron, electron-ion, thermal-field electron and photoelectron types) in the intermediate regime of ion motion. Such an approach was associated with the fact that the dust-particle charge specified by the parameters of the above-mentioned plasma depends heavily on electron emission from the particle surface.
Collisions between ions and atoms as well as ionization also essentially affect the formation of the ion flux onto the surface of dust particles. The computational procedure we propose has allowed solving the chosen set of equations for an arbitrary relationship between the ion mean free path, the particle radius and the Debye length. The electron emission was shown to decrease the absolute value of the dust-particle charge. Moreover, the collisions with atoms lead to the ion flux deceleration onto the particle surface whereas the depth of the disturbance space of plasma increased with decreasing the ionization frequency.
• Dusty plasma;
• Electron emission;
• Ion-atom collisions;
• Nanoparticle charge
This paper uses the moment equations and Poisson’s equation to describe the charging process of the dust particle. We have proposed a technique for solving this system of equations, allowing to obtain the ion current density and the potential on the surface of the dust particle, as well as the thickness of the plasma perturbation region and the distributions of the plasma parameters in this region taking into account collisions, ionization, electron emission and surface roughness.
The obtained calculation results demonstrate that ion-atom collisions reduce the density of the ion current onto the particle surface and lead to an increase in the absolute value of the potential (the charge). A reduction in the ionization rate due to an electronic impact leads to an increase in the thickness of the perturbed region.
It was established that the electron emission and the surface roughness have a significant impact on the charging process of dust particles and reduce the absolute value of the potential of the dust particle surface. These processes must be taken into account in experiments and theoretical models.
In plasmas and electrolytes the Debye length (also called Debye radius), named after the Dutch physicist and physical chemist Peter Debye, is the measure of a charge carrier’s net electrostatic effect in solution, and how far those electrostatic effects persist. A Debye sphere is a volume whose radius is the Debye length, with each Debye length, charges are increasingly electrically screened. Every Debye‐length, the electric potential will decrease in magnitude by 1/e. The notion of Debye length plays an important role in plasma physics, electrolytes and colloids (DLVO theory). WIKI
Heavy radio/frequency microwave over the USA northeast coast on Nov. 22, 2016 (above)
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands (two above)
South Sandwich Islands (two above)
Not exactly uninhabited these days. Must not be easy to get the transmitter there or to manage it. Are there technicians stuck on this desolate island? Sorry boys! http://go.nasa.gov/2fTrCqn http://go.nasa.gov/2gi6975
Bouvet Island (Norwegian: Bouvetøya, previously spelled Bouvet-øya) is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at 54°25.8′S 3°22.8′ECoordinates: 54°25.8′S 3°22.8′E. It lies at the southern end of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and is the most remote island in the world, approximately 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) south-southwest of the coast of South Africa and approximately 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi) north of the Princess Astrid Coast of Queen Maud Land, Antarctica.
The island has an area of 49 square kilometres (19 sq mi), of which 93 percent is covered by a glacier. The centre of the island is an ice-filled crater of an inactive volcano. Some skerries and one smaller island, Larsøya, lie along the coast. … After a dispute with the United Kingdom, it was declared a Norwegian dependency in 1930. It became a nature reserve in 1971.
Bouvetøya is a volcanic island constituting the top of a volcano located at the southern end of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean. The island measures 9.5 by 7 kilometres (5.9 by 4.3 mi) and covers an area of 49 square kilometres (19 sq mi), including a number of small rocks and skerries and one sizable island, Larsøya. It is located in the Subantarctic, south of the Antarctic Convergence, which, by some definitions, would place the island in the Southern Ocean. Bouvet Island is the most remote island in the world.
93 percent of the island is covered by glaciers, giving it a domed shape. The summit region of the island is Wilhelmplatået, slightly to the west of the island’s center. The plateau is 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) across and surrounded by several peaks. The tallest is Olavtoppen, 780 metres (2,560 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL), followed by Lykketoppen (766 metres or 2,513 feet AMSL) and Mosbytoppane (670 metres or 2,200 feet AMSL). Below Wilhelmplatået is the main caldera responsible for creating the island. The last eruption took place 2000 BC, producing a lava flow at Kapp Meteor. The volcano is presumed to be in a declining state.The temperature 30 centimetres (12 in) below the surface is 25 °C (77 °F).
The island’s total coastline is 29.6 kilometres (18.4 mi). Landing on the island is very difficult, as it normally experiences high seas and features a steep coast. During the winter, it is surrounded by pack ice.