Photo above taken by me on August 30, 2016 of the sky over the Olympic Peninsula, WA. By posting these articles and science papers on plasma physics, I am hoping to give evidence as to how advanced this branch of science has become – and also get the few interested. It is my conclusion that ignorance is not bliss, especially when a technology most of us know nothing about is being used to dump thousands of tons of toxic metals, aluminum, barium, strontium, nano-particles, and Morgellons, etc. into the air that we breathe and onto the land that produces our food!
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol. 3, Issue 1, January 2014
Copyright to IJIRSET / www.ijirset.com
Effect of ion temperature on dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a warm unmagnetized plasma with electron inertia
R.Das / Department of Mathematics, Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati –781016, Assam, India
The existence of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons has been established in an unmagnetized warm dusty plasma consisting of positive ion, electrons and static negatively charged dust particles. Depending upon eiTT (= ion to electron temperature), only fast compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitons are found to exist. The amplitude of the rarefactive fast ion acoustic solitons exists only for smaller values … is the number of elementary charges residing on the dust grain) and
its amplitude increases as … increases. Furthermore, they are found to exist only in the lower regime of … On the other hand, compressive fast ion acoustic solitons exist only in the upper regime of …
Electron inertia, Soliton, Solitary wave.
The field of dusty plasmas is a multi-disciplinary research topic of recent interest because of its new aspects in space and modern astrophysics, semiconductor technology, fusion devices, plasma chemistry, crystal physics, biophysics, etc.
Dusty plasmas are present in planetary rings, comet tails, and interplanetary and interstellar clouds. Further, dusty plasma can be produced in laboratories by Modified Q-machine, dc discharges, rf discharges etc .
Dusty plasma plays an important role in plasma crystals , coating and etching of thin films  etc. The study of waves and instabilities has always been important in plasma physics. The presence of dust particles in a plasma generators many new problems to investigate. By means of reductive perturbation method, Rao et al.  have first reported the existence of the dust acoustic waves for low frequency in unmagnetized dust plasma and verified in a laboratory experiment by Barken et al. . D’ Angelo , Nakamura et al.  and Duan et al.  have studied the dust ion acoustic waves. Bharuthram and Shukla  have studied the dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of isothermal electrons, cold ions, in both static and mobile dust particles.
Roychoudhury and Mukharjee  have reported that the finite dust temperature restricts the region for the existence of nonlinear solitary waves. Shukla and Sil in  have reported about the existence of dust ion acoustic waves for higher frequency. Duan  has investigated the dust acoustic solitary waves in hot dust plasma. Duan et al.  have investigated dusty plasma with variable dust charge. El-Labany and El-Taibany  have investigated the effects of variable dust charge, dust temperature and an arbitrary streaming ion beam on small amplitude dust acoustic waves. In their investigation they found that both compressive and rarefactive solitons as well as double layers exist. El-Labany and El-Taibany  have investigated the effects of variable dust charge, dust temperature, and trapped electrons on small amplitude dust acoustic waves. They found that both compressive and rarefactive solitons as well as double layers exist depending on the nonisothermality parameter. Ghosh  has investigated the role of negative ions in dusty plasma with variable dust charge. Zhang and Xue  have studied the effects of the dust charge variation and non-thermal ions on the dust acoustic solitary structure in magnetized dusty plasmas. El-Labany et al.  have studied the propagation of nonlinear dust acoustic waves in the dusty plasma consisting of a mixture of various charged dust.
Mamun and Shukla  have investigated the cylindrical and spherical dust ion acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of inertial ions, isothermal electrons, and stationary dust particles using reductive perturbation method. Mamun and Shukla  have also investigated the condition for the existence of positive and negative potential dust ion acoustic solitary waves.
Sayed and Mamun  have investigated the effect of ion-fluid temperature on dust ion acoustic solitary waves structures in a dusty plasma containing adiabatic ion-fluid, Boltzmann electrons, and static dust particles. Baluku et al.  have investigated dust ion acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of cold dust particles and kappa distributed electrons using both small and arbitrary amplitude techniques. Das and Das  have investigated the dust ion-acoustic solitary structures in an unmagnetized non-thermal plasma consisting of negatively charged dust grains, adiabatic positive ions, and non-thermal electrons. Very recently Das and Karmakar  have established the existence of modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons in presence electron inertia in an interesting situation for different values of electrons’ drift velocity in a dusty plasma.
In this paper, we have investigated the effect of ion temperature on dust of ion-acoustic solitons in an unmagnetized warm dusty plasma consisting of positive ion, electrons and static negatively charged dust particles. Depending upon various ion temperatures, both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitons are found to exist.
Greenland tip (two above) http://go.nasa.gov/2fXiQay http://go.nasa.gov/2fXnw0c
Caspian Sea (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2glNS9l
Japan (above) Nov.24, 2016 / http://go.nasa.gov/2glSk7P
North of Antarctica & west of South America (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2glOVpD
Cocos Island (Spanish: Isla del Coco) is an island designated as a National Park off the shore of Costa Rica. (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2fXejoy
Costa Rica (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2fXljBM
The NHC said Hurricane Otto was the southernmost hurricane on record to hit Central America and should weaken as the storm moves deeper inland. Otto will likely become a tropical storm by Thursday evening, the center added.
Total rainfall of 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm), with isolated amounts of 15 to 20 inches, is expected across northern Costa Rica and southern Nicaragua on Thursday.
Costa Rica (detail above) / Nov. 24, 2016 http://go.nasa.gov/2fXkcCm