US PATENT 4712155 – December 8, 1987 – Method and apparatus for creating an artificial electron cyclotron heating region of plasma
A method and apparatus altering a region of plasma that lies above the earth’s surface at altitudes (e.g. below 50 kilometer) where the collision rate of the electrons in the plasma is originally greater than the cyclotron frequency of the electrons. First, artificial magnetic lines of force are established from the earth’s surface by positioning a loop of cable at the earth’s surface. An electrical current of sufficient amperage is passed through the cable which inherently generates the artificial magnetic field from the center of the loop. The field strength B on the artificial lines in the region of plasma to be altered is sufficient to increase the cyclotron frequency of the electrons in the plasma so that it will exceed the rate of collision of the electrons. The plasma is then excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby further alter the plasma by transmitting circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation upward in a direction substantially parallel to and along the artificial field lines.
1. Technical Field
This invention relates to a method and apparatus for creating an artificial electric cyclotron resonance heating region of plasma and more particularly relates to creating artificial magnetic field lines from the earth’s surface and then altering at least one region of plasma normally existing along said artificial lines at a selected altitude above the earth’s surface.
2. Background Art
The earth’s magnetic field is somewhat analogous to a dipole bar magnet. As such, the earth’s magnetic field contains numerous divergent field or force lines, each line having ends which intersect the earth’s surface at points on opposite sides of the Equator. The field lines which intersect the earth’s surface near the poles have apexes which lie at the furthest points in the earth’s magnetosphere while those closest to the Equator have apexes which reach only the lower portion of the magnetosphere.
Above the earth’s surface, plasma is naturally present along these field lines. This plasma consists of equal numbers of positively and negatively charges particles (i.e., electrons and ions) which are guided by the field line. It is well established that a charged particle in a magnetic field gyrates about field lines, the center of gyration at any instance being called the “guiding center” of the particle. As the gyrating particle moves along a field line in a uniform field, it will follow a helical path about its guiding center, hence linear motion, and will remain on the field line. Electrons and ions both follow helical paths around a field line but rotate in opposite directions. The frequencies at which the electrons and ions rotate about the field line are called gyromagnetic frequencies or cyclotron frequencies because they are identical with the expression for the angular frequencies of gyration of particles in a cyclotron. The cyclotron frequency of ions in a given magnetic field is less than that of electrons, in inverse proportion to their masses.
While this plasma is present at lower altitudes, e.g. below 50 kilometers, the collision rate of the electrons in the plasma becomes much greater than the cyclotron frequency of the electrons at that altitude so an electron normally experiences one or more collisions with other electrons, ions, or particles before it can complete one path around its field line. These collisions cause the electrons to continuously change course preventing the electrons from following their normal helical pathes around the field line.
At higher altitudes, the cyclotron frequency of the electrons exceed the collision rate between electrons so particular electrons may continue to follow defined helical paths around a particular field line for prolonged periods, especially if the electrons are at a sufficient altitude and energy level to become trapped on the field line between mirror points there thereon. When the flow of electrons is relatively coherent or constant for at least a complete helical path about a field line, energy may be inputted from the earth along the field line to add energy to the electrons to substantially alter the plasma of which the electrons form a part thereof. For a more complete discussion of how earth-generated energy is transmitted to substantially alter a region of plasma, see copending U.S. Patent Application Ser. Nos. 690,333 and 690,354, both, filed Jan. 10, 1985.
In the above-mentioned applications, energy is added to the plasma by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to establish electron cyclotron resonance heating in a region of plasma which lies at an altitude where the cyclotron frequency is greater than the collision rate of the electrons in the plasma. Increasing the energy of electrons by electron cyclotron resonance heating, is based on a principle similar to that involved in accelerating charged particles in a cyclotron. That is, by passage of a radio frequency current through a coil which is concentric with that producing the axial field, then in each half-cycle of their rotation about the field lines, the charged particles, e.g. electrons, acquire energy from the oscillating electric field associated with the radio frequency.
The use of electron cyclotron resonance heating to add energy to the electrons of a plasma has heretofore been restricted to regions of plasma which lie at altitudes where the cyclotron frequency exceeds the collision rate of the electrons, (e.g. ionosphere and higher). However, since many benefits (e.g. long distance communications, weather modification, etc.) may arise from being able to alter plasma regions at lower altitudes a need exists for being able to excite electron cyclotron resonant heating in regions of plasma at lower altitudes where the collision rate of the electrons is originally greater that the cyclotron frequency of the electrons.
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides a method and apparatus for creating an artificial electron cyclotron heating region of plasma that lies above the earth’s surface at altitudes (e.g. below 50 kilometers) where the collision rate of the electrons in the plasma is originally greater than the cyclotron frequency of the electrons. First, artificial magnetic lines of force are established from the earth’s surface into the region in which the operation is to be carried out.
To establish the artificial magnetic field lines, a loop of cable is positioned at the earth’s surface so that the center of the loop will be colinear with the desired artificial field lines. An electrical current of sufficient amperage is passed through the cable which inherently generates a dipole field, with the central field line thereof extending outward from the plane of the loop. The artificial magnetic field is designed so that the field strength B at the altitude of the region of plasma to be altered is sufficient to increase the cyclotron frequency of the electrons in the plasma so that it will exceed the collision rate of the electrons. When this occurs, the plasma is now in condition to be excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby increase the charged particle energy. This is done by transmitting circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation from the earth’s surface at or near one end of a artificial magnetic field line where it intersects the earth’s surface.
Right hand circular polarization is used in the northern hemisphere and left hand circular polarization is used in the southern hemisphere. The radiation is deliberately transmitted at the outset in a direction substantially parallel to and along the artificial field line which extends upwardly through the region of plasma to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a frequency which is based on the cyclotron or gyrofrequency of the charged particles and which, when applied to the plasma is said at least one region, excites electron cyclotron resonance within the plasma to heat and accelerate the charged particles in their respective helical paths around and along the field line. Sufficient energy may be employed to cause ionization of neutral particles (molecules of oxygen, nitrogen and the like, particulates, etc.) which then become a part of the plasma thereby increasing the charged particle density of the plasma.
In one embodiment of the invention, electron cyclotron resonance heating is carried out in the selected region at sufficient power levels to allow the plasma to generate a mirror force which forces the charged electrons of the altered plasma upward along the force line to an altitude which is higher than the original altitude. As the plasma moves upward, other particles from the atmosphere at the same altitude as the selected region move horizontally into the region to replace the rising plasma and to form new plasma. The kinetic energy developed by said other particles as they move horizontally is on the same order of magnitude of as the total zonal kinetic energy of stratospheric winds known to exist at altitudes equal to the region being altered. Since there is evidence that these stratospheric winds may be linked to certain weather patterns on earth, the present method may be used to affect similar patterns.
In another embodiment, the present method is used to alter at least one selected region of plasma in the stratosphere to establish a defined layer of plasma having an increased charged particle density. Once this layer is established and while maintaining the transmission of the main beam of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation, the main beam is modulated and/or at least one second different, modulated electromagnetic radiation beam is transmitted from at least one separate source at a different frequency which will be absorbed in the plasma layer. The amplitude of the frequency of the main beam and/or the second beam or beams is modulated in resonance with at least one known oscillation mode in the selected region or regions to excite the known oscillation mode to propagate a known frequency wave or waves throughout the stratosphere which may be used in communications.
South Africa west coast-Namibia http://go.nasa.gov/2gn4Xms
These are west of Port-aux-Français is the capital settlement of the Kerguelen Islands, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, in the south Indian Ocean. The port station is located on the Gulf of Morbihan, at 49.35°S 70.219°E. It has about 45 inhabitants in winter, which can rise to more than 120 in summer.
Sea of Okhotsk (four below) http://go.nasa.gov/2gMXNVs
Maybe Russia is using this area to experiment?
This whole area is just full of bizarre patterns.
Sea of Okhotsk http://go.nasa.gov/2gn1ape
Pacific Ocean west coast of USA http://go.nasa.gov/2gmxBnN