South Georgia & the Sandwich Islands (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2hSixis
Aluminium or aluminum (in North American English) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element in the Earth’s crust (after oxygen and silicon) and its most abundant metal. Aluminium makes up about 8% of the crust by mass, though it is less common in the mantle below. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),[note 1] rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs),[note 2] and francium (Fr). This group lies in the s-block of the periodic table of elements as all alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in them having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour.
The alkali metals are all shiny, soft, highly reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and readily lose their outermost electron to form cations with charge +1. They can all be cut easily with a knife due to their softness, exposing a shiny surface that tarnishes rapidly in air due to oxidation by atmospheric moisture and oxygen (and in the case of lithium, nitrogen). Because of their high reactivity, they must be stored under oil to prevent reaction with air, and are found naturally only in salts and never as the free elements. Caesium, the fifth alkali metal, is the most reactive of all the metals. In the modern IUPAC nomenclature, the alkali metals comprise the group 1 elements,[note 3] excluding hydrogen (H), which is nominally a group 1 element but not normally considered to be an alkali metal as it rarely exhibits behaviour comparable to that of the alkali metals. All the alkali metals react with water, with the heavier alkali metals reacting more vigorously than the lighter ones.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in column (group) 2 of the Periodic table. They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). They have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure.
Structurally, they have in common an outer s- electron shell which is full; that is, this orbital contains its full complement of two electrons, which these elements readily lose to form cations with charge +2, and an oxidation state (oxidation number) of +2.
All the discovered alkaline earth metals occur in nature. Experiments have been conducted to attempt the synthesis of element 120, the next potential member of the group, but they have all met with failure.
What is a list of soft metals?
According to the Mohs hardness scale, a list of soft metals includes lead, gold, silver, tin, zinc, aluminum, thorium, copper, brass and bronze. Gallium might also be considered a soft metal, as it melts at 85.57 degrees Fahrenheit. Mercury is a metal that’s liquid at room temperature.
Why do metals form positive ions?
Metals tend to form positive ions because they contain fewer than four electrons in their outermost shells, making it energetically favorable for them to lose these electrons and gain the electronic structure of the nearest noble gas. Larger atoms with fewer electrons in the outermost shell lose electrons more easily.
Group IA is the most metallic group in the periodic table, containing the alkali metals. These elements lose their single, outermost electrons easily, changing into positive ions with the electronic configuration of the preceding noble gas. Moving downwards in group IA is accompanied by an increase in the reactivity of the elements as the number of electrons in shells increases, causing the atoms to grow larger. The valence electrons of atoms with elements having larger atomic radii and more inner shells are less attracted by nuclear charge. This enables them to leave the atom more easily than their smaller counterparts.
The number of outermost electrons increases from the left to the right in the periodic table. Group IIA is the group adjacent to IA in the periodic table. It contains the alkali earth metals, which contain two electrons in their outermost shells. As the number of electrons increases, the ease of losing these electrons to become positive ions also increases.
North of Antarctica & south of Africa (three above) http://go.nasa.gov/2hSmd3s
Korea & the Yellow Sea http://go.nasa.gov/2hb8VeH
Tatarskiy proliv http://go.nasa.gov/2hSl24e
http://go.nasa.gov/2hb9Trf / above slightly enhanced by me
Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka Krai & Sakhalin (five above) http://go.nasa.gov/2hbeiug