“Fly from the crowd if you would ever begin to be anything.” EPICTETUS (AD 50-135): Caution on familiarity with the crowd / Stratospheric injections to counter global warming could damage ozone layer / and NASA Worldview: Italy, Faroe Islands, Nova Scotia & Newfoundland, North America – east & west coasts

Italy (above); these are similar to the patterns around Japan.

http://go.nasa.gov/2iPiHaQ

Faroe Islands (above)      http://go.nasa.gov/2iPhFLK

EPICTETUS (AD 50-135), the Greek-speaking Stoic philosopher, who was born a slave in Turkey, lived in Rome until his banishment, and taught that philosophy is a way of life and not mere theoretical discipline.  


Caution on familiarity with the crowd:

He who frequently mingles with others, either in conversation or at entertainments, or in any familiar way of living, must necessarily either become like his companions, or bring them over to his own way. For if a dead coal be applied to a live one, either the first will quench the last, or the last kindle the first.

Since then the danger is so great, caution must be used in entering into these familiarities with the crowd … It is for this reason that the philosophers advise us to leave our country; because habitual practices draw the mind aside, and prevent the formation of new habits. …

Can I say to the inevitable that it is nothing to me? If this be not yet your case, fly from your former habits: fly from the crowd if you would ever begin to be anything.

Nova Scotia & Newfoundland (above)     http://go.nasa.gov/2iPmdSi

America, the east coast (above)   http://go.nasa.gov/2iQRfXY

 

Stratospheric injections to counter global warming could damage ozone layer / The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research / Simone Tilmes / April 24, 2008

BOULDER—A much-discussed idea to offset global warming by injecting sulfate particles into the stratosphere would have a drastic impact on Earth’s protective ozone layer, new research concludes. The study, led by Simone Tilmes of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), warns that such an approach might delay the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole by decades and cause significant ozone loss over the Arctic. The study will be published Thursday in Science Express. It was funded by the National Science Foundation, which is NCAR’s principal sponsor, as well as by NASA and European funding agencies.

“Our research indicates that trying to artificially cool off the planet could have perilous side effects,” Tilmes says. “While climate change is a major threat, more research is required before society attempts global geoengineering solutions.” …

Sulfates and ozone: Since major volcanic eruptions temporarily thin the ozone layer in the stratosphere, Tilmes and her colleagues looked into the potential impact of geoengineering plans on ozone over the poles. Sulfates from volcanoes provide a surface on which chlorine gases in the cold polar lower stratosphere can become activated and cause chemical reactions that intensify the destruction of ozone molecules, although the sulfates themselves do not directly destroy ozone.

The new study concluded that, over the next few decades, hypothetical artificial injections of sulfates likely would destroy between about one-fourth to three-fourths of the ozone layer above the Arctic.  This would affect a large part of the Northern Hemisphere because of atmospheric circulation patterns. The impacts would likely be somewhat less during the second half of this century because of international agreements that have essentially banned the production of ozone-depleting chemicals. The sulfates would also delay the expected recovery of the ozone hole over the Antarctic by about 30 to 70 years, or until at least the last decade of this century, the authors conclude. …

The ozone layer is critical for life on Earth because it blocks dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. …

Ozone impacts: … The study found that injections of small particles, over the next 20 years, could reduce the ozone layer by 100 to 230 Dobson Units. This would represent a significant loss of ozone because the average thickness of the ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere is 300 to 450 Dobson Units. …

In the Antarctic, most of the ozone is already depleted and the sulfate injections would not significantly reduce the thickness of the ozone layer. Instead, they would significantly delay the recovery of the ozone hole. The authors caution that the actual impacts on ozone could be somewhat different than estimated if atmospheric changes led to unusually warm or cold polar winters. They also warn that a geoengineering project could lead to even more severe ozone loss if a major volcanic eruption took place at the same time.

https://www2.ucar.edu/atmosnews/news/942/stratospheric-injections-counter-global-warming-could-damage-ozone-layer

North America – Jan.7, 2017     http://go.nasa.gov/2iQWAia

Off California coast (sepia enhanced)    http://go.nasa.gov/2iQKQwf

http://go.nasa.gov/2iPlHUK

http://go.nasa.gov/2iPo7m1

detail off CA Coast (below – sepia enhanced)    http://go.nasa.gov/2iQRXEN

Isn’t it obvious to anyone that these clouds are totally alien unnatural, unearthly hideous?  WAKE UP, planet Earth!                  

http://go.nasa.gov/2iPno4o (below)

North America off the California coast (six above)   http://go.nasa.gov/2iPpz7X

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