Animation showing the decline of the sea ice around Antarctica / Could the South Atlantic Anomaly induce reversal of our poles? / Oxygen escape from the Earth during geomagnetic reversals: Implications to mass extinction / The Twilight of the Kali Yuga

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, 8 January 2017 Summer sea ice around Antarctica Sea ice around Antarctica in decline.

Animation showing the decline of the sea ice around Antarctica over the period from November 16, 2016, to January 4, 2017. For comparison, the blue line shows the 1979-2000 average. Click on image to view animated version.

http://robinwestenra.blogspot.com/2017/01/summer-sea-ice-around-antarctica.html

  Arctic Melt (above)

Christopher Fontenot  – January 8, 2017

Could the South Atlantic Anomaly induce reversal of our poles?  “The South Atlantic Anomaly is nowadays one of the most important features of the Earth’s magnetic field. Its extent area at the Earth’s surface is continuously growing since the intensity instrumental measurements are available covering part of the Southern Hemisphere and centered in South America. Several studies associate this anomaly as an indicator of an upcoming geomagnetic transition, such an excursion or reversal. In this paper we carry out a detailed study about this issue using the most recent models that also include data from the last ESA mission Swarm.

Our results reveal that one of the reversed polarity patch located at the CMB under the South Atlantic Ocean is growing with a pronounced rate of −2.54·105 nT per century and with western drift. In addition, we demonstrate that the quadrupole field mainly controls this reversal patch along with the rapid decay of the dipolar field. The presence of the reversal patches at the CMB seems to be characteristic during the preparation phase of a geomagnetic transition. However, the current value of the dipolar moment (7.7 1022A·m2) is not so low when compared with recent paleomagnetic data for the Holocene (last 12 ka) and for the entire Brunhes geomagnetic normal polarity (last ~0.8 Ma), although the rate of decay is similar to that given by previous documented geomagnetic reversals or excursions.”

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2016.00040/full

 

Oxygen escape from the Earth during geomagnetic reversals: Implications to mass extinction

Abstract

The evolution of life is affected by variations of atmospheric oxygen level and geomagnetic field intensity. Oxygen can escape into interplanetary space as ions after gaining momentum from solar wind, but Earth’s strong dipole field reduces the momentum transfer efficiency and the ion outflow rate, except for the time of geomagnetic polarity reversals when the field is significantly weakened in strength and becomes Mars-like in morphology.

The newest databases available for the Phanerozoic era illustrate that the reversal rate increased and the atmospheric oxygen level decreased when the marine diversity showed a gradual pattern of mass extinctions lasting millions of years.

We propose that accumulated oxygen escape during an interval of increased reversal rate could have led to the catastrophic drop of oxygen level, which is known to be a cause of mass extinction. We simulated the oxygen ion escape rate for the Triassic–Jurassic event, using a modified Martian ion escape model with an input of quiet solar wind inferred from Sun-like stars. The results show that geomagnetic reversal could enhance the oxygen escape rate by 3–4 orders only if the magnetic field was extremely weak, even without consideration of space weather effects. This suggests that our hypothesis could be a possible explanation of a correlation between geomagnetic reversals and mass extinction. Therefore, if this causal relation indeed exists, it should be a “many-to-one” scenario rather the previously considered “one-to-one”, and planetary magnetic field should be much more important than previously thought for planetary habitability.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X14001629

Evidence that we are in the Twilight of the Kali Yuga http://metaphysicalmusing.com/articles/2012/evidence.htm  

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