North of Antarctica & the Middle of the Pacific Ocean (above) sepia enhanced http://go.nasa.gov/2iKgZFC
Explanation of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling System Anomalous Geophysical Phenomena on the Basis of the Model of Generation of Electromagnetic Emission Detected Before Earthquake
M.K. Kachakhidze1, N.K. Kachakhidze1, T.D. Kaladze2
1St. Andrew The First-Called Georgian University of The Patriarchy of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia 2Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi, Georgia (excerpts)
The present paper considers possible physical mechanisms of the geophysical phenomena which may accompany earthquake preparation process and expose themselves several months, weeks or days prior to earthquakes. Such as:
Changing of intensity of electro-telluric current in focal area;
Perturbations of geomagnetic field in forms of irregular pulsations or regular short-period pulsations;
Perturbations of atmospheric electric field;
Irregular changing of characteristic parameters of the lower ionosphere (plasma frequency, electron concentration, height of D-layer etc.);
Irregular perturbations reaching the upper ionosphere, namely F2-layer, for 2-3 days before the earthquake;
Increased intensity of electromagnetic emission in upper ionosphere in several hours or tenths of minutes before earthquake;
Lighting before earthquake;
Total Electron Content (TEC) anomalies.
Physical mechanisms of mentioned phenomena are explained on the basis of the model of generation of electromagnetic emission detected before earthquake, where a complex process of earthquake preparation and its realization are considered taking into account distributed and conservative systems properties. Since the above listed Lithisphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) system geophysical phenomena are less informative with the view of earthquake forecasting, it is admissible to consider them as earthquake indicators.
1. Changing of Intensity of Electro-Telluric Current in Focal Area And ULF Magnetic Pulsations
A quite large variety of physical mechanisms were proposed for the generation of electromagnetic signals possible earthquake precursors, including electro‐kinetic phenomena, effects linked to defects in condensed matter, piezo‐electric phenomena, exo‐electron emission and etc. (Telesca et al., 2013).
It is proved, that dynamic processes in the earthquake preparation zones can produce current systems of different kinds (Molchanov and Hayakawa, 1998; Kopytenko et al., 2001) which can be local sources for electromagnetic waves at different frequencies, including ULF. High‐frequency waves attenuate so rapidly that they cannot be observed on the Earth’s surface, whereas ULF waves can propagate through the crust and reach the Earth’s surface (Sasai and Ishikawa, 1997; Huang et al., 1999; Kopytenko et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2006; Gu et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2011; Hattori et al., 2004; Varotsos, et al., 2010).
Thus, in ground‐based observations, we could expect some ULF signals of seismic origin of the order (0.01 Hz), observed in both geoelectric and geomagnetic fields (Mizutani, et al., 1976; Kopytenko, et al., 2001; Surkov, et al., 2002; Dunson, et al., 2011; Uyeda, 2013).
Furthermore, it should be stated that with the view of reliability studies results of geomagnetic field perturbation it is necessary to exclude magnetosphere influence (Masci, 2011). As for electrotelluric variations before an earthquake that take place in an earthquake preparation zone different attempts have been made to explain the generation of them (Varotsos and Alexopoulos, 1986; Slifkin, 1993; Utada, 1993; Lazarus, 1993; Teisseyre, 1997; DU Ai-Min, et al., 2004). Perturbation of telluric field is considered as a factor of such significance that series of papers (Varotsos and Alexopoulos, 1984 a,b; Varotsos, et al., 1988; Varotsos, et al., 1993) suggested that telluric variations can be used as practical tools for the short-term prediction of earthquakes. According the computations made by Chapman and Witenhead, meridian telluric component variation is generated by induction as a result of latitudinal magnetic component variation, while meridian magnetic component variation is immediate result of latitudinal telluric component variation (Chapman and Whitehead, 1922).
The above stated shows that during earthquake preparation in the epicentral area, local electric and magnetic fields should suffer variations, and frequencies of electric and magnetic fields should be equal, which was proved experimentally (Hattori, 2004).
In special scientific literature magneto-telluric field is considered as a field that is perturbed by local and regional factors (Kraev, 2007). At the same time at perturbation telluric field assumes vertical direction and becomes linearly (or plainly) polarized (Kraev, 2007). Practically perturbed magneto-telluric field should be revealed itself in earthquake focus, on the very first stage of formation of the main fault; this fact was confirmed by laboratory and field observations (Varotsos, 2005; Molchanov and Hayakawa, 2008; Papadopoulos, et.al.,2010; Orihara, et al.,2012).
Telluric field perturbation and polarization during earthquake preparation are contributed by:
the processes connected with crack forming in epicentral area;
asymmetric generation of waves in perturbation sources;
wave spreading in anisotropic medium;
wave refraction at the border of two mediums – earth-atmosphere;. Experimental investigations proved that the earth currents generate instant magnetic variations (Kraev, 2007). … …
The physical principles of generation of anomalous geophysical phenomena in LAI coupling system, accompanying earthquake development process, are explained on the basis of analogous model of electromagnetic contour and classical electrodynamics.
Seismogenic area belongs to oscillation system in the process of earthquake preparation;
Focal area from the moment of earthquake preparation starting till the ending of aftershocks series (including fore-shocks and main shock) combines properties of two systems – distributed and conservative;
From the starting moment of avalanche-like crack formation, processes going on in the earthquake focal zone (as conservative system), can be explained by classic electrodynamics;
After earthquake occurrence (and after attenuating of aftershocks) focal zone will bear only distributed system signs and properties;
In earthquake preparation period in the earthquake focus a contour is formed which emit VLF/LF frequency electromagnetic waves;
In earthquake preparation period processes going on in earthquake focus cause electro-telluric field perturbation in focal zone, which, in its turn, is a reason of generation of ULF-magnetic field pulsations;
Strength of perturbed electro-telluric field results in atmospheric electric field inversion; besides, in this period in the vicinity of epicentral zone, the Earth surface has positive potential;
In epicentral zone type of atmospheric electric field potential gradient variation coincides with the “bad” weather situation, at a definite accuracy; clouds are formed which are stimulated by the presence of high energy particles in this zone;
Part of long wavelength electromagnetic field emitted from apicentral zone – anomalous ULF magnetic field causes magnetospheric perturbation, because of which high energy particles, mainly electrons bursting in ionosphere, deposit on lower boundary of the ionosphere and result in electron and electron density variation in the ionosphere (GPS/TEC);
Particles of relatively high energy continue their way to the Earth, but their one part fails to pass through relatively dense medium of atmosphere and perishes on the top of the atmosphere; this might be a reason of outgoing long-wavelength radiation (OLR) on the top of atmosphere;
Particles with very high energy bursting in the atmosphere, reach the Earth and at the contact with the Earth surface perish. This can result in insignificant increase of temperature on definite areas of the Earth surface;
As to lighting and infrared radiation here the known physics works, taking into account that high energy particles bursting in from perturbed magnetosphere to atmosphere, where atmospheric electric field inversion and anomalous oscillations of values of atmospheric electric field strength in wide diapason take place;
The earthquake preparation process causing various anomalous physical phenomena, with the scientific point of view is a rather complex subject of multi-branch study, and because of it, it needs wide-scale theoretical and experimental works in future; The authors of the present paper consider that electromagnetic emission fixed before earthquake, which, apparently offers us relatively thorough information enabling us to make prognostic conclusions, should be considered as a “main precursor” of the earthquake, or simply, as a “precursor” (Kachakhidze, et al., 2014. arXiv. 1407.3488), while the phenomena which are fixed in the process of earthquake preparation, having direct connection with processes in the focal area, but don’t enable us to make diagnostic conclusions, can be considered as “earthquake indicators”.
North America / January 17, 2017 (two below) http://go.nasa.gov/2izqkTR
Another rectangular over Mexico (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2iG4CZl
North America, west coast Baja CA (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2iG5vB9
Bay Area CA (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2iFT7Bn
Transmitter blast over Washington State Jan.17, 2017
Florida (above) http://go.nasa.gov/2iG71Di
East Coast USA http://go.nasa.gov/2izLFfN