Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles
 / NASA Worldview: The Yucatan, the southern California Coast, the UK & Ireland, and China, Korea & the Yellow Sea

VSF: I believe these strange feathery forms (below) are the result of massive amounts of electrical energy, the clouds have been “juiced” by transmitter emissions as the atmosphere continues to become electrified fried and used for electronic warfare along with weather manipulation.

 

 

http://go.nasa.gov/2kGxvKS

The Yucatan (two above)         http://go.nasa.gov/2kTmWzg
VSF: It snowed maybe four inches here on the Olympic Peninsula this morning.

Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles


Abstract / Sept.10, 2015

Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are vital for ice initiation in, and precipitation from, mixed-phase clouds.  A source of INPs from oceans within sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions has been suggested in previous studies but remained unconfirmed. Here, we show that INPs are emitted using real wave breaking in a laboratory flume to produce SSA. The number concentrations of INPs from laboratory-generated SSA, when normalized to typical total aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer, agree well with measurements from diverse regions over the oceans.  Data in the present study are also in accord with previously published INP measurements made over remote ocean regions. 

INP number concentrations active within liquid water droplets increase exponentially in number with a decrease in temperature below 0 °C, averaging an order of magnitude increase per 5 °C interval. The plausibility of a strong increase in SSA INP emissions in association with phytoplankton blooms is also shown in laboratory simulations. …

These findings have important implications for cloud radiative forcing and precipitation within low-level and midlevel marine clouds unaffected by continental INP sources, such as may occur over the Southern Ocean.
Cloud particles form on atmospheric aerosols, and through this action aerosol particles may impact cloud properties and climate via so-called aerosol indirect effects (1). In clouds that are not cold enough for homogeneous freezing of condensed liquid water to occur (below approximately −38 °C), the first initiation of ice requires the presence of ice nucleating particles (INPs) (2), a select subgroup that may represent 1 in 106 or fewer of all aerosol particles (3).

INPs are thus extremely important to the Earth’s radiative balance and to precipitation in regions dominated by cold clouds; their impacts may be regionally distinct due to differences in aerosol sources and their variability. INPs affect all mixed-phase (ice and liquid coexisting) clouds, and all-ice clouds (e.g., cirrus) below −38 °C, where their action may permit cloud formation at lower supersaturations or warmer temperatures than for homogeneous freezing acting alone.

http://www.pnas.org/content/113/21/5797.full

Southern California coast / Feb.20, 2017         http://go.nasa.gov/2kTjGUG

http://go.nasa.gov/2kGtx5b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The UK & Ireland (two above) Feb.20, 2017        http://go.nasa.gov/2kGx3MS

http://go.nasa.gov/2kTxDlp

China, Korea, the Yellow Sea (two above)      http://go.nasa.gov/2kGw7rQ

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