Canary Islands: Tenerife & Gran Canaria (above) / Sept.7, 2017 Where is the transmitter located? https://go.nasa.gov/2gPeq8q
Canary Islands: Tenerife & Gran Canaria (above) / Sept.7, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2xfTBKa
Aerosol Nucleation in the Terrestrial Atmosphere
Karine Sellegri and Julien Boulon / excerpted from “Atmospheric Aerosols, Life Cycles & Effects on Air Quality & Climate”; Wiley-VCH Germany, 2017
The quantification of aerosol particle emission sources is essential for the prediction of anthropogenic impacts on the atmosphere composition. Aerosols can be directly emitted from primary sources or be formed in the atmosphere from nucleation of gaseous precursors, that is by formation of a new particulate phase from the clustering of gaseous molecules.
A large fraction, yet not properly estimated, of the atmospheric particle number concentration is formed by gas-to-particle conversion through nucleation. New nanoparticles formed by nucleation will grow to climate relevant sizes by condensation and coagulation, and then contribute to the total cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number burden of the atmosphere, hereby influencing climate.
Observation of the formation of new particles by nucleation in the atmosphere have multiplied in the last 20 years thanks to the evolution of the instrumentation toward aerosol detection limits reaching the below 10nm (nanometer) size.
The East Coast of the USA (above) / Sept.7, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2gOq57l
The East Coast of the USA (above) / Sept.7, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2gQ55x9
detail of the East Coast of the USA (above) / Sept.7, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2xfBvb7
detail of the East Coast of the USA (above) / Sept.7, 2017
1PacificRedwood implies that these ‘feathery’ spikes are blast patterns. https://go.nasa.gov/2xeS3zX
Seemorerocks: Sunday, 27 August 2017
No US nuclear might without a large civil atomic industry to prop up the military. US nuclear might rests on civil reactors. Experts say there can be no US nuclear might without a large civil atomic industry to prop up the military.
23 August, 2017
LONDON, 23 August, 2017 – American experts say that US nuclear might depends crucially on the civilian use of atomic energy, and believe the country will lose its place as the world’s nuclear superpower if it does not support its nuclear industry.
The link between the civil nuclear industry and the military’s ability to maintain its nuclear weapons capability is spelt out in a report by experts close to the Pentagon.
It states openly that tritium, an essential component of nuclear weapons, is manufactured in civilian reactors for military use. I
t also says that civilian reactors are needed to produce highly enriched uranium.
The Washington-based Energy Futures Initiative report, says that Russia and China, which are both building civil nuclear stations outside their national borders, will overtake America both in influence and ability to deliver a nuclear threat unless steps are taken to prop up the civil nuclear programme at home.
This is the first time that the dependence of nuclear weapons states on their civil nuclear programmes has been so clearly spelt out. Governments, particularly the United Kingdom’s, have repeatedly claimed there is no connection between the civil and military nuclear industries, but this report makes clear that is not the case.
It says: “The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program is comprised of military and civilian personnel who design, build, operate, maintain and manage the nearly one hundred reactors that power US aircraft carriers and submarines and provide training and research services.
“The program is operated jointly by the Department of Energy and the US Navy. Nuclear reactors provide the Navy with the mobility, flexibility and endurance required to carry out its global mission. More powerful reactors are beginning to be employed on the new Ford class aircraft carriers and will enable the new Columbia class of submarines in the next decades.
“A strong domestic supply chain is needed to provide for nuclear Navy requirements.
“This supply chain has an inherent and very strong overlap with the commercial nuclear energy sector.
“This supply chain for meeting the critical national security need for design and operation of Navy reactors includes a workforce trained in science and engineering, comprised of US citizens who qualify for security clearances.
“The Navy will (also) eventually need additional highly enriched uranium (HEU) to fuel its reactors for long intervals between refueling. Because of the national security use and the sensitivity of HEU production, the entire supply chain from uranium feed to the enrichment technology must be of United States origin.
“There is currently no such domestic capability in the supply chain. The relatively lengthy time period required to stand up such a capability raises serious, near-term concerns about the US capacity to meet this critical national security need.
“The nuclear weapons stockpile requires a constant source of tritium (half life about 12.5 years), provided by irradiating special fuel rods in one or two commercial power reactors. As with the Navy HEU requirements, the tritium must be supplied from US-origin reactors using domestically produced LEU reactor fuel.
“Once again, we do not have the long-term capability to meet this need because of the absence of an enrichment facility using US-origin technology. This is a glaring hole in the domestic nuclear supply chain, since the only enrichment facility in the United States today uses Urenco (European) technology to supply power reactor fuel.”
The report also spells out that the companies that supply the shrinking civil nuclear reactor programme are the same firms that provide the components and enriched uranium to keep the Navy’s nuclear-propelled vessels in full operational order.
The report says: “A shrinking commercial enterprise will have long term spillover effects on the Navy supply chain, including by lessened enthusiasm among American citizens to pursue nuclear technology careers.”
south of Japan (above – these are ever more prevalent) / Sept.4, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2gG3Lgc
detail south east of Japan (above) / Sept.4, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2gGLXl8
detail south east of Japan (above) / Sept.4, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2eX69vd
detail south east of Japan (above) / Sept.4, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2gGLbEy
The Sea of Japan / Sept.5, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2f1V24n