ANTARCTICA (above – sepia enhanced for structure) / Nov.2o, 2017. https://go.nasa.gov/2hGnF7U
ANTARCTICA (above) / Nov.21, 2017. Around the AMERY Ice Shelf area. When you increase the contrast, these radio-frequency/microwave ripples show up, which must be within & underneath? It is summer in the Southern hemisphere. https://go.nasa.gov/2hK0OIO
Rapid collapse of Antarctic glaciers could flood coastal cities by the end of this century.
By Eric Holthaus on Nov 21, 2017
In a remote region of Antarctica known as Pine Island Bay, 2,500 miles from the tip of South America, two glaciers hold human civilization hostage.
Stretching across a frozen plain more than 150 miles long, these glaciers, named Pine Island and Thwaites, have marched steadily for millennia toward the Amundsen Sea, part of the vast Southern Ocean. Further inland, the glaciers widen into a two-mile-thick reserve of ice covering an area the size of Texas.
There’s no doubt this ice will melt as the world warms. The vital question is when.
The glaciers of Pine Island Bay are two of the largest and fastest-melting in Antarctica. (A Rolling Stone feature earlier this year dubbed Thwaites “The Doomsday Glacier.”)
Together, they act as a plug holding back enough ice to pour 11 feet of sea-level rise into the world’s oceans — an amount that would submerge every coastal city on the planet. For that reason, finding out how fast these glaciers will collapse is one of the most important scientific questions in the world today.
ANTARCTICA (above) / Nov.19, 2017. Above the South Shetland Islands & Larsen area. https://go.nasa.gov/2zh9Ec1
To figure that out, scientists have been looking back to the end of the last ice age, about 11,000 years ago, when global temperatures stood at roughly their current levels. The bad news? There’s growing evidence that the Pine Island Bay glaciers collapsed rapidly back then, flooding the world’s coastlines — partially the result of something called “marine ice-cliff instability.”
The ocean floor gets deeper toward the center of this part of Antarctica, so each new iceberg that breaks away exposes taller and taller cliffs. Ice gets so heavy that these taller cliffs can’t support their own weight. Once they start to crumble, the destruction would be unstoppable.
“Ice is only so strong, so it will collapse if these cliffs reach a certain height,” explains Kristin Poinar, a glaciologist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “We need to know how fast it’s going to happen.”
In the past few years, scientists have identified marine ice-cliff instability as a feedback loop that could kickstart the disintegration of the entire West Antarctic ice sheet this century — much more quickly than previously thought.
Minute-by-minute, huge skyscraper-sized shards of ice cliffs would crumble into the sea, as tall as the Statue of Liberty and as deep underwater as the height of the Empire State Building. The result: a global catastrophe the likes of which we’ve never seen.
ANTARCTICA (above) / Nov.21, 2017. South Shetland Islands, with transmitter generated radio-frequency/microwave coming off of George Island. What is this used for? https://go.nasa.gov/2hISrgj
Scientists discover 91 volcanoes below Antarctic ice sheet
This is in addition to 47 already known about and eruption would melt more ice in region affected by climate change
Scientists have uncovered the largest volcanic region on Earth – two kilometres below the surface of the vast ice sheet that covers west Antarctica.
The project, by Edinburgh University researchers, has revealed almost 100 volcanoes – with the highest as tall as the Eiger, which stands at almost 4,000 metres in Switzerland.
Geologists say this huge region is likely to dwarf that of east Africa’s volcanic ridge, currently rated the densest concentration of volcanoes in the world.
And the activity of this range could have worrying consequences, they have warned. “If one of these volcanoes were to erupt it could further destabilize west Antarctica’s ice sheets,” said glacier expert Robert Bingham, one of the paper’s authors. “Anything that causes the melting of ice – which an eruption certainly would – is likely to speed up the flow of ice into the sea. …
These newly discovered volcanoes range in height from 100 to 3,850 metres. All are covered in ice, which sometimes lies in layers that are more than 4km thick in the region. These active peaks are concentrated in a region known as the west Antarctic rift system, which stretches 3,500km from Antarctica’s Ross ice shelf to the Antarctic peninsula.
ANTARCTICA (above) / Nov.21, 2017. Above note the ‘spiral-coils’ of electri-fried cloud formations. A scalar wave technology? And surfactants. https://go.nasa.gov/2hJfg3v
Hot Mantle Plume Is Melting Antarctica From Beneath, NASA Study Finds
By Himanshu Goenka 11/08/17
A study by NASA has found new evidence to support a three-decades-old theory that said a geothermal source deep underneath the icy continent was melting it from below. The heat source is called a mantle plume, and its role in affecting volcanic activity and topographic features on Antarctica was first theorized about 30 years ago by a scientist at the University of Colorado, Denver.
Hélène Seroussi and Erik Ivins of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, studied this mantle plume idea through numerical modeling, since getting direct measurements from under the ice is difficult. The JPL researchers created a model that accounted for the physics of the ice sheets, sources of heat in the region and how heat is transported, changes in the altitude of the ice sheet surface, among other factors.
After that, they simulated a number of different scenarios for the size and location of a possible mantle plume, since both those factors were unknown, and compared the effects with observations of Antarctic melting, as recorded by satellites in space.
“The experiments show that mantle plumes have an important local impact on the ice sheet, with basal melting rates reaching several centimeters per year directly above the hotspot. In order to be consistent with observations of basal hydrology in Marie Byrd Land, the upper bound on the plume-derived geothermal heat flux is 150 milliwatts per square meter. In contrast, the active lake system of the lower part of Whillans Ice Stream suggests a widespread anomalous mantle heat flux, linked to a rift source,” the researchers wrote in the abstract of their study.
ANTARCTICA (above) / Nov.20, 2017. Note the ‘spiral-coil’ ripples. Contrast pushed & saturation enhanced. You never what will emerge in these things. https://go.nasa.gov/2hHyqqw
ANTARCTICA (above) / Nov.20, 2017. These always resemble insect pods to me. Creepy.
More spiral-coils. Slight contrast & sepia enhanced. More evidence of transmitter EMF. https://go.nasa.gov/2zlZoPU
ANTARCTICA (above – enlarged) / Nov.20, 2017. These always resemble insect pods to me. Creepy. More spiral-coils. Contrast pushed & sepia enhanced. More evidence of transmitter EMF. https://go.nasa.gov/2hHzo6o
ANTARCTICA (above) / Nov.29, 2017. Contrast pushed & sepia enhanced. More evidence of transmitter EMF. https://go.nasa.gov/2zjJdCt
ANTARCTICA (above) / Nov.29, 2017. Detail of ice breaking up off the AMERY Ice Shelf. https://go.nasa.gov/2zhHb5X