ANTARCTICA Melting: Green Algae near McMurdo Station / Geoengineering polar glaciers to slow sea-level rise / Volcanoes in Antarctica / Heat Source Under West Antarctica / Influence of a West Antarctic mantle plume on ice sheet basal conditions

ANTARCTICA, McMurdo Station (which is on Ross Island) & Ross Sea area. This screenshot has no enhancement, so there is no alteration in the color of the green algae (I assume) in the water. Serious melting, I would say. See map below for Ross Island.                                                                                                                        https://go.nasa.gov/2G9DUEZ

ANTARCTICA, McMurdo Station (which is on Ross Island) & Ross Sea area. This screenshot has no enhancement, so there is no alteration in the color of the green (I assume) algae in the water. See map below for Ross Island.                            https://go.nasa.gov/2pF8u3c

WIKI: The McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research center on the south tip of Ross Island, which is in the New Zealand-claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. It is operated by the United States through the United States Antarctic Program, a branch of the National Science Foundation. The station is the largest community in Antarctica, capable of supporting up to 1,258 residents, and serves as one of three United States Antarctic science facilities. All personnel and cargo going to or coming from Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station first pass through McMurdo.

Photo of our tax payer dollars at McMurdo Station (above). The fuel supply must be nuclear.

ANTARCTICA, McMurdo Station & the Ross Sea (above) / March 24, 2018. More evidence of melting near the Ross Ice Shelf.                                                                        https://go.nasa.gov/2GaiyaN

ANTARCTICA, McMurdo Station & the Ross Sea (above) / March 24, 2018. More evidence of melting near the Ross Ice Shelf.
https://go.nasa.gov/2pFb7lu

ANTARCTICA, Ross Sea area, adjacent to McMurdo Station (above) / March 23, 2018. The saturation & contrast are intentionally enhanced by me to show the clarity of details better. The color is not accurate, but still indicates much green algae in the water. The long area in upper-center that vaguely resembles a whale, appears to have evidence of scalar radiation in/on it.                                                                                                          https://go.nasa.gov/2ufVp51

 

VSF: The article below shows how insanely the ideas for geoengineering the planet are rising. Make no mistake, Trump is 100% for geoengineering as it benefits the corporatocracy – Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, Boeing, American Elements, Bechtel, Booze-Allen and more. As World War III is in the immediate future, the military will have to continue to weaponize and ‘metalize’ our Earth’s atmosphere to increase the capabilities of their Electronic Warfare EW technologies. There is no war without EW!

 

Geoengineering polar glaciers to slow sea-level rise
Space Daily
Princeton NJ (SPX) Mar 20, 2018

Princeton climate researcher Michael Wolovick argues in a Nature Comment that targeted approaches could prevent glaciers from melting, thereby forestalling some of the most expensive effects of global climate change. Ice sheets that spread from continental shelves to the ocean are highly vulnerable to melting near the grounding line, which is the point at which they lift off of the bedrock and start floating on the ocean (purple). Wolovick proposes building an artificial sill — an underwater wall 3 miles long and 350 feet high — to block warm water (red) from reaching the glacier.

Targeted geoengineering to preserve continental ice sheets deserves serious research and investment, argues an international team of researchers in a Comment published March 14 in the journal Nature. Without intervention, by 2100 most large coastal cities will face sea levels that are more than three feet higher than they are currently. …

“Geoengineering interventions can be targeted at specific negative consequences of climate change, rather than at the entire planet,” Wolovick said.

The ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica will contribute more to sea-level rise this century than any other source, so stalling the fastest flows of ice into the oceans would buy us a few centuries to deal with climate change and protect coasts, say the authors.

“There is going to be some sea-level rise in the 21st century, but most models say that the ice sheets won’t begin collapsing in earnest until the 22nd or 23rd centuries,” said Wolovick. “I believe that what happens in the 22nd or 23rd centuries matters. I want our species and our civilization to last as long as possible, and that means that we need to make plans for the long term.”

Wolovick started investigating geoengineering approaches when he realized how disproportionate the scale was between the origin of the problem at the poles and its global impact: “For example, many of the most important outlet glaciers in Greenland are about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, and there are bridges that are longer than [that].

The important ice streams in Antarctica are wider, tens of kilometers up to 100 kilometers, but their societal consequences are larger as well, because they could potentially trigger a runaway marine ice sheet collapse. The fast-flowing parts of the ice sheets – the outlet glaciers and ice streams – might be the highest-leverage points in the whole climate system.”

The glaciers could be slowed in three ways: warm ocean waters could be prevented from reaching their bases and accelerating melting; the ice shelves where they start to float could be buttressed by building artificial islands in the sea; and the glacier beds could be dried by draining or freezing the thin film of water they slide on.

The engineering costs and scales of these projects are comparable with today’s large civil engineering projects, but with extra challenges due to the remote and harsh polar environment. Engineers have already constructed artificial islands and drained water beneath a glacier in Norway to feed a hydropower plant. Raising a berm in front of the fastest-flowing glacier in Greenland – constructing an underwater wall 3 miles long and 350 feet high in arctic waters – would be a comparable challenge.

Such a project would easily run into the billions of dollars, but the scientists note that without coastal protection, the global cost of damages could reach $50 trillion a year. In the absence of geoengineering, the sea walls and flood defenses necessary to prevent those damages would cost tens of billions of dollars a year to build and maintain.
http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/

Geoengineering_polar_glaciers_to_slow_sea_level_rise_999.html

Volcanoes in ANTARCTICA [map above]
George Dvorsky – 8/14/17

Scientists have identified nearly 100 previously unknown volcanoes in West Antarctica, which, in addition to the 47 already known to exist in the region, makes it one of the largest concentration of volcanoes in the world.

New research released in a special Geological Society publication series identifies 91 new volcanoes in a region known as the West Antarctic Rift System, a 2,200-mile-long (3,500 km) area that extends from Antarctica’s Ross Ice Shelf to the Antarctic Peninsula. All of these volcanoes are buried beneath the Antarctic ice sheet, some as deep as two miles. They range in size from 325 to 12,600 feet (100-3,850 meters), the largest being as tall as the Eiger in Switzerland.

The scientists who conducted the study, Max Van Wyk de Vries and Robert Bingham from the School of GeoSciences at the University of Edinburgh, say this concentration is bigger than East Africa’s volcanic ridge, which would make it the densest concentration of volcanoes in the world—though some geologists say this claim is grossly overstated (more on this in just a bit). It’s not known how many, if any, of the newly-discovered volcanoes are active, but scientists are voicing concerns that an eruption could exacerbate the effects of climate change on the frozen continent. …

Scientists aren’t entirely sure what happens when under-ice volcanoes erupt, but these events could cause underground magma and fluids to force open new paths and fracture rock, according to the Washington University researchers. A serious eruption could melt the bottom of the ice sheet immediately above the volcano’s vent, but we really have no idea what would happen after that.

… wouldn’t be surprised if some of these newly discovered volcanoes are active, and he’d like to see a similar study done of the entire Antarctic continent. Mount Gaussberg, for example, is a young volcano protruding above the ice in East Antarctica, and Coffin says there may be many more under East Antarctic ice, as well.

https://gizmodo.com/scientists-discover-trove-of-volcanoes-hidden-beneath-a-1797819428

VSF: Antarctica is obviously the MULADHARA CHAKRA of planet Earth!


Anthony Watts / November 7, 2017
From NASA’s Jet propulsion Laboratory and the “inconvenient science” department comes this study that dashes hopes of pinning melting in Antarctica entirely on human activity.
Hot News from the Antarctic Underground
Study Bolsters Theory of Heat Source Under West Antarctica

A new NASA study adds evidence that a geothermal heat source called a mantle plume lies deep below Antarctica’s Marie Byrd Land, explaining some of the melting that creates lakes and rivers under the ice sheet. Although the heat source isn’t a new or increasing threat to the West Antarctic ice sheet, it may help explain why the ice sheet collapsed rapidly in an earlier era of rapid climate change, and why it is so unstable today.

The stability of an ice sheet is closely related to how much water lubricates it from below, allowing glaciers to slide more easily. Understanding the sources and future of the meltwater under West Antarctica is important for estimating the rate at which ice may be lost to the ocean in the future.

Antarctica’s bedrock is laced with rivers and lakes, the largest of which is the size of Lake Erie. Many lakes fill and drain rapidly, forcing the ice surface thousands of feet above them to rise and fall by as much as 20 feet (6 meters). The motion allows scientists to estimate where and how much water must exist at the base.

Some 30 years ago, a scientist at the University of Colorado Denver suggested that heat from a mantle plume under Marie Byrd Land might explain regional volcanic activity and a topographic dome feature. Very recent seismic imaging has supported this concept.

Influence of a West Antarctic mantle plume on ice sheet basal conditions
Helene Seroussi, Erik R. Ivins, Douglas A. Wiens, Johannes Bondzio
First published: 1 August 2017
Abstract
The possibility that a deep mantle plume manifests Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism and potential elevated heat flux in West Antarctica has been studied for more than 30 years. Recent seismic images support the plume hypothesis as the cause of Marie Byrd Land (MBL) volcanism and geophysical structure. Mantle plumes may more than double the geothermal heat flux above nominal continental values. A dearth of in situ ice sheet basal data exists that samples the heat flux. Consequently, we examine a realistic distribution of heat flux associated with a possible late Cenozoic mantle plume in West Antarctica and explore its impact on thermal and melt conditions at the ice sheet base. We use a simple analytical mantle plume parameterization to produce geothermal heat flux at the base of the ice sheet. The three‐dimensional ice flow model includes an enthalpy framework and full‐Stokes stress balance. As both the putative plume location and extent are uncertain, we perform broadly scoped experiments to characterize the impact of the plume on geothermal heat flux and ice sheet basal conditions.

The experiments show that mantle plumes have an important local impact on the ice sheet, with basal melting rates reaching several centimeters per year directly above the hotspot.  In order to be consistent with observations of basal hydrology in MBL, the upper bound on the plume‐derived geothermal heat flux is 150 mW/m2.

In contrast, the active lake system of the lower part of Whillans Ice Stream suggests a widespread anomalous mantle heat flux, linked to a rift source.

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/2017JB014423

ANTARCTICA, the Australian Heard & MacDonald Islands (above) / March 24, 2018. Note the miles of scalar radiation doming off these islands. Not enhanced.             https://go.nasa.gov/2pCpWoT

ANTARCTICA, the Ausralian Heard & MacDonald Islands (above – radiation patterns on right) March 24, 2018. Note the miles of scalar radiation doming off these islands. Sepia enhanced.
https://go.nasa.gov/2pCVqv9

NASA’s longest running survey of ice shattered records in 2017
by Maria-Jose Vinas for NASA Earth News
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Feb 15, 2018

Last year was a record-breaking one for Operation IceBridge, NASA’s aerial survey of the state of polar ice. For the first time in its nine-year history, the mission, which aims to close the gap between two NASA satellite campaigns that study changes in the height of polar ice, carried out seven field campaigns in the Arctic and Antarctic in a single year. In total, the IceBridge scientists and instruments flew over 214,000 miles, the equivalent of orbiting the Earth 8.6 times at the equator.

“The main focus was repeated lines for laser altimetry, but we also expanded our radar coverage on the Bering and Malaspina glaciers,” Larsen said. “A highlight of the missions was flying the Harding and Sargent icefields on the Kenai Peninsula. Other areas included the Fairweather Range in Glacier Bay National Park, and the eastern Alaska Range.”

The last feat of 2017 for IceBridge was launching two consecutive sets of Antarctic flights from South America and Antarctica. The first Antarctic campaign, carried out from Oct. 29 to Nov. 25 from Ushuaia, Argentina, comprised 11 science flights over the Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea that included gravity surveys of the Larsen C and Venable Ice Shelves, plus two flights under the tracks of the German TanDEM-X satellite to explore whether scientists can use the radar data from the spacecraft to detect a band of older and thicker sea ice that may exist near the northern edge of the ring of sea ice around Antarctica.

Finally, IceBridge scientists and instruments deployed to McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from where they completed 16 survey flights between Nov. 28 and Dec. 18.
“Our McMurdo campaign exceeded all expectations,” said Joe MacGregor, IceBridge’s deputy project scientist and a glaciologist at Goddard. “We covered lots of ground around the South Pole, the Transantarctic Mountains, the Ross Ice Shelf and Victoria Land. We surveyed all our highest priority targets and then some.”

The mission of Operation IceBridge, NASA’s longest-running airborne mission to monitor polar ice, is to collect data on changing polar land and sea ice and maintain continuity of measurements between ICESat missions. The original ICESat mission launched in 2003 and ended in 2009, and its successor, ICESat-2, is scheduled for launch in the fall of 2018. Operation IceBridge began in 2009 and is currently funded until 2020. The planned overlap with ICESat-2 will help scientists connect with the satellite’s measurements.

http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/NASAs_longest_running_survey_of_ice_shattered_records_in_2017_999.html

ANTARCTICA, the BALLENY ISLANDS (above) / March 25, 2018. Note the miles of scalar radiation coming off these islands. What is the energy source? Why do they need so muc energy? Surely they are in fact increasing the melting, not trying to stop it. This image is sepia and contrast enhanced by me for clarity of detail.                                    https://go.nasa.gov/2GddFxt

 

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