ANTARCTICA (above) / June 7, 2017. https://go.nasa.gov/2JlpgQT
ANTARCTICA (above) / June 7, 2017. Blue water in the WEDDELL SEA area https://go.nasa.gov/2M96dak
VSF: As you can clearly see, due to the tilt of the earth away from the sun, most of Antarctica is now dark to my NASA Screenshots. This phenomenon only occurs around 90 degrees S — the South Pole. Different locations south of the Antarctic Circle experience different periods of sunlight and no sunlight which can be measured in days, weeks or months. When I am able to capture some evidence of melting, there is often blue water, which naturally contradicts a normal winter effect in the polar region of the Southern Hemisphere.
The melting of the polar regions will bring flooding to many of the world’s major coastal cities, which will cause the migration of hundreds of thousands of people seeking food and shelter – that no government can possibly provide. We will see a very different mind set as people become increasingly desperate and violent. Also the potential for Methane release is flat out catastrophic.
Seemorerocks in New Zealand: Friday, 15 June 2018
Study “now puts Antarctica in the frame as one of the largest contributors to sea-level rise. Urgent action is needed.” This is a bit like saying that the gates need to be closed after the horse has bolted.
‘Utterly Terrifying’: Study Affirms Feedback Loop Fears as Surging Antarctica Ice Loss Tripled in Last Five Years
“The most robust study of the ice mass balance of Antarctica to date,” scientists say, “now puts Antarctica in the frame as one of the largest contributors to sea-level rise.”
Common Dreams, 14 June, 2018
Scientists are expressing alarm over “utterly terrifying” new findings from NASA and the European Space Agency that Antarctica has lost about 3 trillion tons of ice since 1992, and in the past five years—as the atmospheric and ocean temperatures have continued to climb amid ongoing reliance on fossil fuels—ice losses have tripled.
This should be a wake-up call, said University of Leeds professor Andrew Shepherd, a lead author of the report. “These events and the sea-level rise they’ve triggered are an indicator of climate change and should be of concern for the governments we trust to protect our coastal cities and communities.”
Published in the journal Nature, “This is the most robust study of the ice mass balance of Antarctica to date,” said NASA’s Erik Ivins, who co-led the research team. The report offers insight into the future of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which the authors note “is an important indicator of climate change and driver of sea-level rise.”
“The outlook for the future is looking different to what it was,” explained Shepherd. “There has been a sharp increase, with almost half the loss coming in the last five years alone.”
Up until 2012, “we could not detect any acceleration,” but after that, based on surveys by satellites, they saw a threefold increase in the rate of ice melt. “That’s a big jump, and it did catch us all by surprise,” Shepherd said. “A threefold increase now puts Antarctica in the frame as one of the largest contributors to sea-level rise. The last time we looked at the polar ice sheets, Greenland was the dominant contributor. That’s no longer the case.”
Eric Holthaus / Verified account @EricHolthaus: Today’s news on Antarctica — ice loss there has accelerated 300% over the past 25 years — is utterly terrifying. “As we observe the system for longer, we see more and more changes of the type we feared could happen as the climate warms”
Even so, Dr. James Hansen, “the father of modern climate change awareness,” warned at the time, “The primary issue is whether global warming will reach a level such that ice sheets begin to disintegrate in a rapid, non-linear fashion on West Antarctica, Greenland or both.”
“Once well under way, such a collapse might be impossible to stop, because there are multiple positive feedbacks,” Hansen wrote for New Scientist in 2007. “In that event, a sea level rise of several meter at least would be expected.”
Fears of so-called feedback loops have long been a critical part of the scientific community’s warnings about what runaway climate change could mean.
According to the report out this week—which was conducted by 84 researchers across 44 institutions—and others that have preceded it, the most serious melting is occuring in West Antarctica. “When we look into the ocean we find that it’s too warm and the ice sheet can’t withstand the temperatures that are surrounding it in the sea,” which is causing glaciers to melt more rapidly into the oceans, Shepherd explained.
“Things are happening. They are happening faster than we expected.” …
#1 of Three: KERGUELEN Islands & Antarctic Lands in south Indian Ocean (above) / June 3, 2018. Port-aux-Francais, in center-lower right. Note the blue water. https://go.nasa.gov/2LUZjVX
#2 ANTARCTICA: KERGUELEN Islands & Antarctic Lands in south Indian Ocean (above) / June 3, 2018. This is the same area as #1, but from the “Antarctic view” section. The contrast etc. are maxed. I feel the colors help to show the intensity of the radiation energy. https://go.nasa.gov/2LUT5oQ
From the Arctic Sea Ice Forum: Latest JAXA Antarctic Sea Ice Extent Data
#3 ANTARCTICA: KERGUELEN Islands & Antarctic Lands in south Indian Ocean (above) / June 3, 2018. This is the same area as #1, but from the NASA Worldview “Antarctic view” section. The contrast etc. are maxed. I feel the colors help to show the intensity of the radiation energy. Probably from the Russian station, as they seem to be in the lead of this technology. https://go.nasa.gov/2HexnsB
From the Arctic Sea Ice Forum Re: Ice Apocalypse – MULTIPLE METERS SEA LEVEL RISE (narrated video)
« Reply #133 on: Today at 06:58:03 PM »
Recent findings indicate that as the oceans continue to warm the less the oceans will be able to act as a carbon sink for atmospheric CO₂. This means that the concentration of atmospheric CO₂ will increase faster than previously expected:
Title: “Invisible scum on sea cuts CO2 exchange with air ‘by up to 50%'”
Extract: “The world’s oceans absorb around a quarter of all man-made carbon dioxide emissions, making them the largest long-term sink of carbon on Earth. …
They found surfactants can reduce carbon dioxide exchange by up to 50%. …
Dr Ryan Pereira, a Lyell research fellow at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, said: “As surface temperatures rise, so too do surfactants, which is why this is such a critical finding.
“The warmer the ocean surface gets, the more surfactants we can expect, and an even greater reduction in gas exchange. …
Rob Upstill-Goddard, professor of marine biogeochemistry at Newcastle University, said: “These latest results build on our previous findings that, contrary to conventional wisdom, large sea surface enrichments of natural surfactants counter the effects of high winds.””
ANTARCTICA (above) May 21, 2018. The Amundsen Sea area showing blue water. I used no enhancements. https://go.nasa.gov/2Ljybzu
From the Arctic Sea Ice Forum Re: Ice Apocalypse – MULTIPLE METERS SEA LEVEL RISE (narrated video)
« Reply #134 on: Today at 06:58:03 PM »
The linked reference discusses the finding of improved modeling near the Eocene–Oligocene transition (EOT) that are of particular interest for calibrating climate models to including Hansen’s ice-climate feedback mechanism (that is highly related to the response of the meridional overturning circulation). These new finding indicate higher climate sensitivity than projected by earlier (as in those used by AR5) less-sophisticated models.
These findings increase the probability that Hansen’s warnings about the risks of abrupt climate change this century are correct:
Hutchinson, D. K., de Boer, A. M., Coxall, H. K., Caballero, R., Nilsson, J., and Baatsen, M.: Climate sensitivity and meridional overturning circulation in the late Eocene using GFDL CM2.1, Clim. Past, 14, 789-810, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-14-789-2018, 2018.
The Eocene–Oligocene transition (EOT), which took place approximately 34 Ma ago, is an interval of great interest in Earth’s climate history, due to the inception of the Antarctic ice sheet and major global cooling. Climate simulations of the transition are needed to help interpret proxy data, test mechanistic hypotheses for the transition and determine the climate sensitivity at the time.
However, model studies of the EOT thus far typically employ control states designed for a different time period, or ocean resolution on the order of 3°. Here we developed a new higher resolution palaeoclimate model configuration based on the GFDL CM2.1 climate model adapted to a late Eocene (38 Ma) palaeogeography reconstruction.
The ocean and atmosphere horizontal resolutions are 1° × 1.5° and 3° × 3.75° respectively. This represents a significant step forward in resolving the ocean geography, gateways and circulation in a coupled climate model of this period. We run the model under three different levels of atmospheric CO2: 400, 800 and 1600 ppm.
The model exhibits relatively high sensitivity to CO2 compared with other recent model studies, and thus can capture the expected Eocene high latitude warmth within observed estimates of atmospheric CO2. However, the model does not capture the low meridional temperature gradient seen in proxies.
Equatorial sea surface temperatures are too high in the model (30–37 °C) compared with observations (max 32 °C), although observations are lacking in the warmest regions of the western Pacific. The model exhibits bipolar sinking in the North Pacific and Southern Ocean, which persists under all levels of CO2. North Atlantic surface salinities are too fresh to permit sinking (25–30 psu), due to surface transport from the very fresh Arctic ( ∼ 20 psu), where surface salinities approximately agree with Eocene proxy estimates. North Atlantic salinity increases by 1–2 psu when CO2 is halved, and similarly freshens when CO2 is doubled, due to changes in the hydrological cycle.
#1 The following three images were located west of South America and north of Antarctica in the Amundsen Sea area (above) May 30, 2018. When I took close-ups, the parallel scalar radiation patterns become more evident. (see two more below). https://go.nasa.gov/2xCTKbN
#2 Located west of South America and north of Antarctica in the Amundsen Sea area (above) May 30, 2018. When I moved in for close-ups, the unmistakable parallel scalar radiation patterns become more evident. https://go.nasa.gov/2xqDWsw
#3 Located west of South America and north of Antarctica in the Amundsen Sea area (above) May 30, 2018. When I moved in for close-ups, the parallel scalar radiation patterns become more evident.
ANTARCTICA (above) / May 13, 2018. Remaining tip of Antarctica Peninsula in the WEDDELL SEA area. Note the scalar wave radiation patterns. I used no enhancements. https://go.nasa.gov/2GenY3B
ANTARCTICA (above) / May 13, 2018. Remaining tip of Antarctica Peninsula in the WEDDELL SEA area. Note the scalar wave radiation patterns. I used no enhancements. https://go.nasa.gov/2Klevdk
ANTARCTICA (above) / May 1, 2018. Showing increasing darkness. https://go.nasa.gov/2HKORSn