Novaya Zemlya & Kara Sea (on right)
contrast etc. enhanced
The Atmosphere & Ionosphere: Dynamics, Processes & Monitoring
Edited by Vladimir L. Bychkov, Gennady V. Golubkov, Anatoly I. Nikitin
Published by Springer 2010
From July 7-12, 2008 the 1st International conference “Atmosphere, Ionosphere, Safety (AIS-2008)” was held in Zelenogradsk Russia — described as a cosy resort on the bank of the Baltic Sea near Kalingrad in Russia. Organizers of the conference were a Russian university, a Russian institute of chemical physics, the Pushkin Institute of terrestrial magnetism and radio-wave propagation, and the Russian Committee on Ball Lightning. Financial support was made by the Russian Fund of Fundamental Research Project N. 08-03-06041 and a European Office of Aerospace Research & Development Grant award.
The conference was devoted to (1) the analysis of the atmosphere-ionosphere response on natural and man-made processes, the reasons of occurrence of the various accompanying geophysical phenomena, and an estimation of possible consequences of their influence on the person and technological systems; (2) the study of the monitoring possibility and search of the ways for the risk level decrease. The editors admit that “questions of safety took only a rather modest place.”
The descriptions in Chapter 3, Atmosphere—Ionosphere Electrodynamic Coupling, by V.M. Sorokin and V.M. Chmyrev are particularly riveting. In section 3.2.2 entitled ‘Effects of the Ionosphere Heating by Powerful HF Transmitters’ the text provides evidence of the cooperation of the United States, Norway and Russia in experiments using powerful ground-based HF (3-30 MHz) transmitters to heat the lower ionosphere by electromagnetic radiation.
The transmitters were said to be located for example in Fairbanks Alaska, Oahu Hawaii, Fort Yukon Alaska, Platteville Colorado, Annapolis Maryland 21.4kHz NSS transmitter (in 1992) registered at Gander Newfoundland, Tromso Norway, Aldra Norway, Helgeland Norway, Arecibo Puerto Rico, in 1987 the Arkhangelsk region in Russia (which includes the archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya in the Arkhangelsk Oblast) , and SURA (commonly known as the Russian HAARP).
We are constantly warned that Russia and the USA will soon be at war. However from the extensive information in this 2010 Springer text, we can assume that at least initially, there has been cooperation between the United States, Russia, Norway, and others regarding ongoing global operations using ground-based transmitters that [according to the text] heat the Ionosphere, form plasma density inhomogeneities, excite gamma ray bursts and atmospheric emissions of different spectral bands, generate ULF/ELF/VLF electromagnetic waves and plasma turbulence in the atmosphere, stimulate radiation belt electron precipitations and the acceleration of ions in the upper atmosphere.
Sakhalin Island in the Sea of Okhotsk Russia
A selection of intriguing statements from Chapter 3:
“The lower atmosphere modification is produced by the injection and turbulent transfer of charged aerosols and radioactive substances, which lead to the formation of an external electric current in the atmosphere, changes in the Earth-Ionosphere electric circuit, an enhancement of DC electric field in the lower ionosphere, and related development of acoustic-gravity wave instability responsible for the generation of the plasma density and electric conductivity inhomogeneities.”
Arkhangelsk VLF Transmitter: “The VLF transmitter … started to work several hours before the satellite arrival in the transmitter zone, and there was enough time for pumping the accelerated particles into a wide range of geomagnetic tubes.” [Many of the Russian experiments are said to take place onboard the Russian COSMOS-1809 satellite.]
“The enhanced injection of radon and metallic aerosols in the epicenter region [of thermal anomalies in seismic zones] and its influence on the Ionosphere …” [Radon and metallic aerosols emanations before strong earthquakes and their role in atmosphere and Ionosphere modification; S.A. Pulinets, V.A, et al; 1997]