Nanotech with Celeste Solum Pt 1
Nanotech with Celeste Solum Pt 2
The Smallest-Ever Injectable Chip Hints at a New Cybernetic Medicine
It’s the size of a dust mite.
By Brad Bergan
May 12, 2021
The smallest-ever computer chip resting in a hypodermic needle. Chen Shi / Columbia Engineering
Electronics are getting imperceptibly small, opening new avenues for medical technology to place advanced monitoring and treatment devices inside our bodies. And Columbia University engineers just demonstrated a new and revolutionary version of this, creating the world’s smallest single-chip system ever developed, according to a recent study published in the journal Science Advances.
And, critically, the tiny new chip can be implanted via a hypodermic needle to measure internal body temperature, and potentially much more.
A tiny computer chip was implanted into seven mice at once
The implant created by the engineers at Columbia is record-breakingly small, but it’s also breaking new ground in simply existing as a wholly functional, electronic circuit whose total volume is less than 0.1 cubic millimeter. In other words, it’s the size of a dust mite, not to mention far more compact than the world’s smallest computer, which is a cube-shaped device precisely 0.01-inches (0.3 mm) on each side. The smaller, new chip is only visible with a microscope, and pushed the envelope in power-sourcing and communications ingenuity design.
Superparamagnetic nanoparticle delivery of DNA vaccine – PubMed
The efficiency of delivery of DNA vaccines is often relatively low compared to protein vaccines. The use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to deliver genes via magnetofection shows promise in improving the efficiency of gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo.
In particular, the duration for gene transfection especially for in vitro application can be significantly reduced by magnetofection compared to the time required to achieve high gene transfection with standard protocols.
SPIONs that have been rendered stable in physiological conditions can be used as both therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their unique magnetic characteristics. Valuable features of iron oxide nanoparticles in bioapplications include a tight control over their size distribution, magnetic properties of these particles, and the ability to carry particular biomolecules to specific targets.
The internalization and half-life of the particles within the body depend upon the method of synthesis. Numerous synthesis methods have been used to produce magnetic nanoparticles for bioapplications with different sizes and surface charges. The most common method for synthesizing nanometer-sized magnetite Fe3O4 particles in solution is by chemical coprecipitation of iron salts. The coprecipitation method is an effective technique for preparing a stable aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanoparticles.
We describe the production of Fe3O4-based SPIONs with high magnetization values (70 emu/g) under 15 kOe of the applied magnetic field at room temperature, with 0.01 emu/g remanence via a coprecipitation method in the presence of trisodium citrate as a stabilizer. Naked SPIONs often lack sufficient stability, hydrophilicity, and the capacity to be functionalized.
In order to overcome these limitations, polycationic polymer was anchored on the surface of freshly prepared SPIONs by a direct electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged SPIONs (due to the presence of carboxylic groups) and the positively charged polymer.
Polyethylenimine was chosen to modify the surface of SPIONs to assist the delivery of plasmid DNA into mammalian cells due to the polymer’s extensive buffering capacity through the “proton sponge” effect.
Manipulative magnetic nanomedicine: the future of COVID-19 pandemic/endemic therapy
- Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic or endemic as health emergency
… the recent COVID-19 infection associated with new server acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) … This infection is emerging very challenging due to 1) human-to-human transmission via aerosolization, 2) ability to affect lung rapidly because of easy binding between Spike (S1) protein of SARS-COV-2 virus and host cell membrane receptors like angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and TMPRSS-2 protein, this makes virus replication easy.
A successful COVID-19 infection management is not the only issue to deal with the respiratory system as it affects lung function. But the SARS-CoV-2 virus infection also severely affects other important body organs including the heart, liver, eye, gut, and brain as well. This is the reason that recovery of a COVID-19 infected patient is slow and sometimes the patient exhibits permanent disorder in biological function due to weak organs and organ function. Such scenarios have been investigated in asymptomatic patients as well. Keeping complete COVID-19 outbreak into consideration, health agencies were focused on 1) preparation and execution of safety guidelines, 2) exploring virus structure, genomic profiles, variability, and generate bioinformatics to understand pathogenesis, 3) developing rapid diagnostic kits, 4) optimizing available therapies, alone or in combination, 5) exploring methodologies to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, 6) exploring novel therapeutics, 7) exploring aspects of therapeutic delivery at disease location, and 8) exploring combinational aspects of nanobiotechnology to support rapid testing, trapping of SARS-CoV-2, and delivery of therapeutics for not only to eradicate SARS-CoV-2 but provide long-term immunity for COVID-19 infected patient [4–6].
Based on the outcomes of big data analytics based on artificial intelligence (AI), it is suggested that recognition and eradication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be a time-taking procedure. Thus, all the focus is toward rapid infection diagnostics and viral infection management using state-of-the-art technologies, for example, 1) promoting physical distance and using of a mask to avoid virus transmission, 2) developing AI and internet-of-medical-things (IoMT) based strategies for rapid testing, tracking of patients, big data analytics, bioinformatics generation, developing a novel sensor for early-stage SARS-CoV-2 detection, and novel therapeutics and successful delivery using nanobiotechnology approach, the main focus of this editorial.
- Manipulative magnetic nanomedicine: the future of COVID-19 therapy
Nanobiotechnology is emerging very promising to investigate novel methodologies for managing COVID-19 pandemic/endemic successfully. In this direction, experts have explored the opto-electro-magnetic nanosystem to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus using a biosensing approach. Such optical, electrical, or magnetic biosensors function based on geno-sensing and immune-sensing has detected the SARS-CoV-2 virus selectively at a very low level. These efficient-miniaturized biosensors can be operated using a smartphone and promoted for clinical application for early-stage diagnostics of COVID-19 infection. The successful integration of these SARS-CoV-2 virus sensors with AI and IoMT enables virus detection at point-of-location and sharing of bioinformatics with the medical center at the same time for timely therapeutics decision. This approach is also useful for tracking tasks and managing COVID-19 infection according to patient infection profiling. To avoid human-to-human SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission, experts have developed stimuli-responsive nanotechnology enable which can not only trap aerosol of virus size but can eradicate viruses on applying external stimulation for example nanoenable photo-sensitive virus degradation. Various types of clothes containing nanoparticles have demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 virus trapping and eradication successfully [2,9]. However, significant attention is required to increase the production and distribution of these masks for public use.
- Besides, the contribution of biotech-pharma companies is also of high significance in terms of investigating novel therapeutic agents of higher efficacy with least/acceptable adverse effects. Though the SARS-CoV-2 virus is new and has exhibited strain variation which is making treatment optimization challenging. But biotechnology experts are analyzing every aspect of bioinformatics to design and develop an effective therapy based on novel anti-viral agents, CRISPR-Cas, antibodies, and vaccines5. Another approach to manage COVID-19 infection is to introduce or boost immunity through nutrition, for example, nutraceuticals have acted as inhibitors to prevent binding between SARS-CoV-2 virus and ACE-2 enzyme.
Investigating a therapeutic agent against the SARS-CoV-2 virus infection seems possible now but the delivery of these agents is still a remaining challenge because this virus may have numerous reservoirs over the time. It is also demonstrated that COVID-19 infection patients may temporarily or permanently have immunocompromised biological systems. Such-related adverse effects include risk of cardiac arrest, vision issues, weak respiratory system, neurological disorders (one of the serious issues because SARS-CoV-2 virus crosses the blood-brain barrier), etc. Therefore, a single therapeutic agent designed against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may not be enough to treat COVID-19 infected patients completely.
Thus, a manipulative therapy, a combination of optimized therapeutic agents, consisting of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus agent and immune-supportive agents will require to be optimized based on the patient infection profiling. Experts have thought about it and raised/dealing the following concerns 1) drug-to-drug interaction, 2) delivery of drug/drugs at the targeted site, 3) control over the release of drug/drugs from a therapeutic formulation, and 4) immune-supporting long-acting therapies. These tasks are challenging but needed to be managed; therefore, exploring aspects of nanomedicine could be a promising approach to develop novel therapies to manage COVID-19 infection and support the immune system along with SARS-CoV-2 virus affected organs.
Nanomedicine (10 to 200 nm) is a therapeutic cargo designed using an appropriate drug nanocarrier and a therapeutic agent. Nowadays magnetic nanomedicine has performed to manage viral infection at various reservoirs even in the brain because nanomedicine is capable to cross any barriers in the body via adopting the following approaches 1) functionalization of nanomedicine with barriers specific receptors, 2) applying external stimulation like ultrasound, and 3) noninvasive guided approach like magnetically guided drug delivery system.
Besides drug delivery, magnetic nanomedicine could be formulated to deliver multiple drugs at a targeted site to achieve desired therapeutic performance due to 1) control over the release by applying external stimulation like an ac-magnetic field, 2) formulating a magnetic cargo to load multiple drugs without drug-to-drug interaction, for example, layer-by-layer (LBL) approach, and 3) the sequence of drug release can be tuned and planned according to a stage/requirement of disease condition [13–15]. The performance of such nanomedicine mainly depends on the selection of a multi-functional stimuli-response drug nanocarrier such as magneto-electric nanoparticles (MENPs) , opto-magnetic, opto-electromagnetic, magneto-LBL, magneto-liposome, and magneto-plasmonics nanosystem. These advanced nanomedicines not only deliver the drug/drug but also help in the recognition of drug distribution and disease progression.
Combining above mentioned salient features, manipulative magnetic nanomedicine (MMN) as one of the potential future therapy wherein control over delivery and performance if required. Such MMN has the capabilities to recognize and eradicate the SARS-CoV-2 virus to manage COVID-19 infection and symptoms. Besides, due to the flexibility of using the therapeutic agent of choice, these manipulative nanomedicines can be designed and developed as long-acting therapy for COVID-19 infection where anti-virus and immune-supportive agents can stay longer in the body without causing any side-effects. Such personalized MMN (Figure 1) is an urgently required therapy and its development should be the focus of future research with the following aims
Figure 1. Systematic illustration of manipulative nanomedicine projected as future COVID-19 pandemic/endemic therapy 1 Exploring stimuli-responsive magnetic nanosystems for on-demand-controlled delivery and release.
2 Image-guided therapy to recognize the delivery site and confirm drug release.
3 A magnetically guided approach to delivering drugs across the barriers like the gut, BBB, etc.
4 Magneto-LBL/liposomal approach to delivering multiple drugs to avoid drug-to-drug interaction and control over the drug release sequence. For example, an anti-virus drug should be released first then an immune-protective agent.
5 The MMN can be customized according to patient disease profile and medical history, for example, selection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus agent (antibody, ARV, CRISPR-Cas, etc.,) based on patient genomic profiling.
6 The MMN can also be customized as long-acting therapeutics that allows drug-releasing for a longer time (2–3 months), as must require therapy to manage post-COVID-19 infection effects.
7 The MMN can be explored as personalized precision therapy.
Application of a sub–0.1-mm3 implantable mote for in vivo real-time wireless temperature sensing | Science Advances
There has been increasing interest in wireless, miniaturized implantable medical devices for in vivo and in situ physiological monitoring. Here, we present such an implant that uses a conventional ultrasound imager for wireless powering and data communication and acts as a probe for real-time temperature sensing, including the monitoring of body temperature and temperature changes resulting from therapeutic application of ultrasound.
The sub–0.1-mm3, sub–1-nW device, referred to as a mote, achieves aggressive miniaturization through the monolithic integration of a custom low-power temperature sensor chip with a microscale piezoelectric transducer fabricated on top of the chip. The small displaced volume of these motes allows them to be implanted or injected using minimally invasive techniques with improved biocompatibility. We demonstrate their sensing functionality in vivo for an ultrasound neurostimulation procedure in mice. Our motes have the potential to be adapted to the distributed and localized sensing of other clinically relevant physiological parameters.
STUDY: Pfizer vaccine causes catastrophic damage to every system of your body
An Israeli organization made up of health experts has published a report outlining how the Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) injection from Pfizer causes damage to nearly every system in the human body. The Israeli People Committee (IPC) says that Pfizer’s Chinese Virus jab is causing catastrophic damage to people’s bodies – so much so, in fact, that there are more people dying from it in Israel than there are people in all of Europe who are dying from the AstraZeneca jab.
You know things are bad when the bar has been so lowered that it is now considered a privilege to have a jab that causes just a wee-bit fewer deaths than the one your own government is mandating. According to IPC, “there has never been a vaccine that has harmed as many people” as the Pfizer vaccine has. The group published a full report detailing its eye-opening findings. “We received 288 death reports in proximity to vaccination (90% up to 10 days after the vaccination),” one part of the report explains. “64% of those were men.” Meanwhile, Israel’s official Ministry of Health is claiming that “only 45 deaths in Israel were vaccine related.”
Assuming these figures are accurate, the Israeli government is blatantly lying about the number of Israelis who are being injured or killed by the Pfizer injection, which appears to be the jab of choice for the Israeli people.
All Covid-19 injections are dangerous and deadly
All of this is even more concerning when considering the fact that the only jabs governments around the world have been focusing on as dangerous are the ones from AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson (J&J). Both of these just so happen to be the only two that are not loaded with DNA-reprogramming mRNA chemicals. The J&J and AstraZeneca injections are considered to be more “traditional” in terms of the technology used.
Meanwhile, Pfizer’s jab is killing people left and right in Israel, and Moderna’s is not much better, and we have not heard so much as a peep from the government about “pausing” either of those. In Europe, where AstraZeneca’s injection is being widely used, numerous countries have suspended its use entirely, citing a pandemic of deadly blood clots and other adverse effects.
German scientists recently discovered the two-step process by which AstraZeneca injections cause blood clots in recipients. There is a series of events that must first take place inside the body before the blood clots form. Still, AstraZeneca’s injection is reportedly causing far fewer deaths than Pfizer’s, and yet neither Israel nor the United States has hit the pause button on its administration.
Not only that, but the J&J jab, which causes deadly blood clots just like AstraZeneca’s jab, is now being actively recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in American patients, albeit with a tiny safety warning on the package. “According to Central Bureau of Statistics data during January-February 2021, at the peak of the Israeli mass vaccination campaign, there was a 22% increase in overall mortality in Israel compared with the previous year,” the Israeli report further explains about what is happening over there.
“In fact, January-February 2021 have been the deadliest months in the last decade, with the highest overall mortality rates compared to corresponding months in the last 10 years.” The most dramatic increases in death are occurring among Israelis between the ages of 20 and 29. This group has seen an overall increase in mortality of 32 percent ever since the Pfizer vaccine was introduced. “
According to this estimate, it is possible to estimate the number of deaths in Israel in proximity of the vaccine, as of today, at about 1000-1100 people.” The latest news about Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) injections can be found at ChemicalViolence.com.
Sources for this article include: GreatGameIndia.com NaturalNews.com
A Direct Link Between the Chinese Military and a Major Pentagon-Funded Virus Research Center
Largely based on an examination of Chinese-language documents and scientific publications, we believe that the Military Veterinary Research Institute and the Institute of Zoonotic Diseases in Changchun, Jilin Province, China, led by People’s Liberation Army General Ningyi Jin and retired General Xianzhu Xia, are core elements of China’s biowarfare program.
We have established a direct connection between the Chinese military’s Changchun research centers in Jilin Province and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston.
UTMB is a major virus research center heavily funded by the National Institutes of Health, especially Dr. Anthony Fauci’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
UTMB is also the home of the Department of Defense-funded Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases and has one of the few Biosafety Level 4 facilities for containing and conducting research on the world’s most dangerous viruses.
The key connection between UTMB and the Chinese military’s Changchun research centers in Jilin Province is Pei-Yong Shi. He was trained in the People’s Republic of China and now is a Professor in the Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology at UTMB.
Pei-Yong Shi has also been an Honorary Professor at the Wuhan Institute of Virology since 2007 and received more than $5 million in research funding from Fauci’s NIAID.